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Welwyn Garden City


Recent Advances in Town Planning

Author: Thomas Adams (and others)*

Published: 1932 by J. &. A. Churchill

Format: Hardback 10" by 7½" with 400 pages

*The full author credit for this book appearing on the title page reads as follows:

Thomas Adams

Past-President, Town Planning Institute; Fellow, Surveyors Institution; Fellow, Institute of Landscape Architects; Hon. Mem. Institution of Municipal and County Engineers.

Member Board of Governors, American City Planning Institute; Hon. Mem. American Institute of Architects; Associate Professor of City Planning, Harvard University; Lecturer on Civic Design, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Formerly Town Planning Inspector, Local Government Board (Ministry of Health), England and Wales; and Town Planning Adviser to the Canadian Government.

In collaboration with

F. Longstreth Thompson, B.Sc., V.T.P.I., F.S.I., A.M.I.C.E.

E. Maxwell Fry, B.Arch., A.R.I.B.A.

James W. R. Adams, A.M.T.P.I.

 

In 1899 the Garden City Association was formed with the object of promoting Howard's garden city ideas as set out in his 1898 book To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. In 1901, Ralph Neville, K. C., became chairman of the council of the Association, and Thomas Adams (1871-1940) became its first paid secretary. Adams, a supporter of land reform, had written for Scottish newspapers on social issues, and was a Liberal Party agent. He had moved his family to London in January 1901. Stanley Buder* wrote: Self-confident and ambitious, Adams soon was at odds with Howard and his band of enthusiasts. A down-to-earth man, Adams thought "it a waste of time to set up idealistic utopias of what we would like to do but cannot." He steered away from the garden city idea which he thought narrow. According to Buder: Thomas Adams, condescended to Howard as an amusing figure not to be taken seriously. Adams played a prominent rôle in town planning in Britain and North America after WW-I. He founded the Town Planning Institute in 1914, the American City Planning Institute in 1917, and the Town Planning Institute of Canada in 1919.

*The quotations above are from Visionaries and Planners - The Garden City Movement and the Modern Community, 1990, Stanley Buder.

 

Thomas Adams

(image from the Internet)


From the book reproduced below are the preface, the contents, the list of illustrations, and some few paragraphs of text relevant to Welwyn Garden City and also Letchworth (the first garden city), plus some of the illustrations. The illustrations in the book are on glossy paper - mostly well-reproduced, but some poor and blurry.

 
 
 

PREFACE

IN the following pages I have attempted to describe the recent advances and tendencies of town planning in its three phases of law, practice and design. This is, perhaps, the first effort that has been made to give a comprehensive review of all three aspects in one book. Naturally such a task has involved many difliculties, and a great deal of labour in collecting and analysing the data and in trying to deal with a technical and complicated subject in as readable a manner as possible.

It has only been practicable for me to complete the book because of the extent of collaboration I have received.

Mr. F. Longstreth Thompson has made valuable contributions in matter and in the form of constructive criticism. Mr. Maxwell Fry has also assisted in preparing part of the text and has made a number of excellent drawings for illustrations. The main task of collecting and arranging the material and making the first draft of the greater part of the book was undertaken by Mr. James W. R. Adams. He has also taken charge of all the details involved in preparing the final manuscript and illustrations for publication. I am also indebted to Mr. W. Loftus Hare for aid in drafting part of Chapter II and for much editorial assistance, to Mr. Hamlet S. Philpot for notes on Oxford, and to Mr. George L. Pepler for advice and suggestions. Thus, while I alone am responsible for such opinions as the book contains, and for its arrangement and manner of presentation, the credit for much of the authorship has to be assigned to others.

While the book approaches the subject of law and practice of town planning from the British point of view and mainly in relation to conditions in the United Kingdom, a considerable part of it deals with conditions in other countries and especially in the United States.

Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, there may be some matters that are not quite accurately described or that should be dealt with more, or less, fully to maintain a true sense of proportion. I shall welcome any comments or criticisms with a view to future revision.

 
 

THOMAS ADAMS

 
 

LONDON

 
 

 

 
 

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION: OBJECTS AND SCOPE OF TOWN PLANNING

DEFINITIONS AND PRINCIPLES - Meaning of Town Planning - Principles of Planning.
 
ELEMENTS IN TOWN GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION - Natural Situation - Artificial Elements - Decentralization and Recentralization.
 
PROBLEMS AND METHODS - Physical Problems - Methods and Objectives - Need of Practical Methods.

CHAPTER I: EARLY PHASES OF THE MODERN TOWN PLANNING MOVEMENT

TRANSITION AND CHANGE - Locomotion - Architectural Design - Development and Preservation of Amenities - Forms and Character of Suburban Expansion - Housing and Sanitation.
 
EXPERIMENT - Reconstruction Schemes - Model Industrial Villages - Garden Cities and Suburbs.
 
EXAMPLE AND NECESSITY - Example of Germany - Necessity.
 
EDUCATION.
 
EARLY PHASES IN THE UNITED STATES - Landscape Architecture and City Planning - Zoning.

CHAPTER II: LAW AND PRACTICE IN GREAT BRITAIN, 1909 - 1931

INFLUENCE OF LAW - Influence of Public Health and Housing Acts.
 
ADVANCES BEFORE THE WAR - The Act of 1909 - Education and Practice incidental to Legislation, 1905-14.
 
PROGRESS IN THE POST-WAR PERIOD - Amending Act of 1919 - Land Acquisition for Garden Cities - Beginning of Official Regional Planning - Legislative and Official Action, 1923-24 - Town Planning Act of 1925 - The Roads Improvement Act, 1925 - The Local Government Act, 1929 - Local Acts and Architectural Control - Position of Statutory Planning in England and Wales in 1930
 
ADVANCES IN SCOTLAND - Position in Scotland in 1930.
 
RESULTS OF TOWN PLANNING LEGISLATION - General Results - Sanitary Conditions and Amenities - Open Spaces and Agricultural Reservations - Zoning - Convenience and Economy in Street Development - Estate Development.
 
CONCLUSION.

CHAPTER III: LAW AND PRACTICE OUTSIDE GREAT BRITAIN

THE BRITISH EMPIRE - Canada - Australia - New Zealand - South Africa - India - Federated Malay States - Singapore - Other Parts of the British Empire.
 
THE UNITED STATES - Legislation - Procedure - The Philippine Islands.
 
OTHER COUNTRIES - Germany - France - Italy - Holland - - Sweden - Czechoslovakia - Mexico.

CHAPTER IV: STUDIES OF EXISTING CONDITIONS AND PROBLEMS

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS IN MAKING SURVEYS.
 
PRELIMINARY SURVEYS - Examples of Preliminary Surveys.
 
COMPREHENSIVE REGIONAL AND CIVIC SURVEYS - Features to be Studied - Amount of Detailed Study - Some Examples.
 
CONCLUDING COMMENT.

CHAPTER V: ADVISORY REGIONAL PLANS

SCOPE OF REGIONAL PLANNING - Areas and Types of Region.
 
CONTENTS OF REGIONAL PLANS - Zoning - Communications - Parks and Parkways - Additional Matters.
 
EXAMPLES OF REGIONAL PLANS - West Middlesex (Suburban) - Mid Surrey (Semi-Rural) - Manchester (Industrial) - Rugby (Semi-Industrial) - South-East Sussex (Rural) - The River Thames (Preservation of Amenities) - East Kent (Rural and Mining) - Examples in North America - A European Example.
 
NATIONAL PLANNING.

CHAPTER VI: ADVISORY TOWN DEVELOPMENT PLANS

SCOPE OF ADVISORY TOWN PLANS.
 
SPECIAL VALUE OF ADVISORY TOWN PLANS.
 
EXAMPLES IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND - Examples where Conservation is a Special Need.
 
EUROPEAN EXAMPLES.
 
CITY PLANS IN NORTH AMERICA - Master Plans in the United States - Canadian Advisory Plans.
 
PLANNING OF NEW TOWNS - Design of New Towns - Comparative Examples.

CHAPTER VII: TOWN PLANNING SCHEMES IN ENGLAND

LOCAL ORGANIZATION AND FIRST STEPS - Technical Assistance and Expert Advice - Surveys and Advisory Plans - Boundaries of the Area.
 
PROCEDURE - Resolution to Prepare a Scheme - Preliminary Statement - Draft Scheme - Final Scheme.
 
GENERAL CHARACTER OF PROBLEMS - Positive and Negative Features in Design.
 
SPECIFIC CONTENTS OF A TOWN PLANNING SCHEMES - Summary of Headings of Model Clauses.
 
EXAMPLES OF COMPLETED SCHEMES - Ruislip-Northwood Urban District Scheme - County Borough of Derby - North-East Hull and Sutton Town Planning Scheme - General Progress.

CHAPTER VIII: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF ZONING REGULATION

GENERAL MEANING OF ZONING.
 
ORIGINS OF MODERN ZONING.
 
CHARACTER AND USE ZONING - Rigid Zoning Regulations - Elastic Zoning Regulations - Garages and Filling Stations - Supplementary Zoning - Zoning for Various Types of Dwelling - Non-conforming Uses.
 
DENSITY - Space about Buildings.
 
HEIGHT REGULATIONS - Comparative Conditions in London and New York - Standards of Model Clauses - Typical American Clause.
 
SPECIAL VALUES OF ZONING - Co-operation with Owners - Economy of Zoning - Architectural Design.
 
CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS.

CHAPTER IX: STREETS, ROADS, AND OTHER WAYS

USES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF STREETS AND ROADS - Types of Vehicle using Streets and Roads - Types of Streets and Roads - Classification of Roads.
 
DESIGN OF STREET SYSTEMS - Plan of Roads - The Bye-law Street System - Road Systems in Regional Plans - Road Systems in Town Planning Schemes.
 
SPECIFIC PROBLEMS IN ROAD DESIGN - Width and Number of Traffic Lanes - Gradients and Alignment - Intersections - Bye-Pass Routes - New Highway Routes - One-way Traffic and Service Roads - Construction of Road Surfaces.
 
PARKWAYS - Parkways in the New York Region - Conditions in the London Region.
 
BUILDING LINES IN RELATION TO STREETS.
 
STREET WIDTHS IN NORTH AMERICA - Street Widths, Building Lines, and Parking.
 
REPLANNING OF STREETS.

CHAPTER X: OPEN SPACES AND AMENITIES

PUBLIC OPEN SPACE IN TOWNS - Landscape Design - New Parks and Parkways - Standards of Public Open Space.
 
PRIVATE OPEN SPACE.
 
ACQUISITION OF OPEN SPACES IN BRITAIN - Acquisition under the Town Planning Act - Proposed Reservations in Advisory Plans.
 
AMERICAN PARK SYSTEMS - Reservations and National Parks - Recreation Facilities - Private Open Spaces.
 
PRESERVATION OF AMENITIES - Regulation of Advertising Display - Preservation of Trees - Petrol Filling Stations - Control of Elevations - Control of Amenities in the United States - Architectural Control in Europe.

CHAPTER XI: LOCAL DEVELOPMENT AND SITE PLANNING

TYPES OF LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS.
 
HOUSING AND SITE PLANNING IN ENGLAND - Local Improvement Schemes - New Housing Estates.
 
PROBLEMS OF DESIGN IN ESTATE DEVELOPMENT - Choice of Site - Elements in the Site Plan.
 
CIVIC CENTRES.
 
WATERFRONT DEVELOPMENTS.
 
EXTENSIVE REPLANNING IN BUILT AREAS - Timidity in Large Scale Replanning - Replanning for Social Improvement - Need of More Study of Conditions - Problems of Cost.
 
ARCHITECTURE AND SITE PLANNING - Important Points in Design - Architectural Details.

CHAPTER XII: TRANSPORTATION, MARKETS AND PUBLIC SERVICES

TRANSPORTATION BY WATER, RAIL AND AIR - Developments and Existing Conditions - Modern Tendencies in Planning Major Transport Facilities - Uses of Waterfronts - Proposals regarding Harbours in Town Plans - Railway Improvements - Co-ordination of Railway and Street Traffic - Goods Transport - Needs of American Railways - Examples of Railway Proposals in Town Plans - Limitations in Planning Railway Improvements - Aerodromes.
 
MARKETS IN RELATION TO TRANSPORTATION - Planning Business Districts.
 
POWER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION.
 
SANITARY SERVICES AND LIGHTING - Sanitary Conditions - Main Drainage - Lighting - Engineering Structures and Amenities.

CHAPTER XIII: TENDENCIES IN LAW AND PRACTICE

DEPENDENCE OF PRACTICE ON LAW.
 
TENDENCIES IN PUBLIC OPINION - Inclusion of Built Areas in Local Acts - Zoning Built Areas - Administration.
 
NEW CODE OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING LAW - Scope of Planning Schemes - Matters that may be dealt with - Contents of Schemes - Responsible Authorities - Regional and Supplementary Schemes - Compensation and Betterment - Purchase of Land - Procedure - Consultation and Agreement between Public Departments.
 
PROBABLE EFFECTS AND LIMITATIONS OF NEW LEGISLATION - Economic Factors - Factors of Amenity - Value of Zoning.
 
CONCLUSION.

 
 

 

 
 

ILLUSTRATIONS

Those in red are reproduced at the bottom

Frontispiece Hampstead Garden Suburb
1 Street Patterns, Examples of
2 Letchworth Garden City, Plan of
3 Chichester, Southgate
4 Cheltenham, The Promenade
5 Bath, The Royal Crescent
6 Eastbourne, The Western Parade
7 Eastbourne, Grand Parade
8 Paris, Balloon View of, 1846
9 London, The Duke of York Steps
10 Muswell Hill, Bye-law Street Development in
11 Bournville Garden Village
12 Welwyn Garden City Estate, Plan of
13 Aerial Mosaic
14 Ottawa, The Parliament Buildings
15 Prince Rupert, B.C., Street and Plot Levels in
16 Eastbourne and District, Isometric Contour Map
17 Eastbourne and District, Geological Map
18 Eastbourne and District, Traffic Flow Diagram (in colour)
19 The Lake District
20 Vancouver, B.C., Topographical and Population Spot Map
21 The London Region
22 West Middlesex Regional Plan (in colour)
23 The New York Region
24 The Ruhr Region
25 Bexhil, Map showing Town Planning Proposals (in colour)
26 Old Edinburgh, View of
27 Edinburgh, Princes Street Gardens
28 Chicago: Proposed River Front Improvement
29 Chicago: Michigan Avenue and Wacker Drive
30 Windsor, Ontario, Suggested Civic Centre
31 Government Centres (Ottawa, New Delhi and Rome)
32 Canberra, Plan of
33 Radburn, N.J., Plan of
34 Corner Brook, Newfoundland, Plan of
35 Intensive Housing Development
36 Welwyn Garden City, Open Housing Development in
37 Empire State Building, New York City
38 Building Height and Volume Regulation Diagram
39 New York City, Proposed Municipal Building for
40 Hyde Park Corner, 1825
41 Hyde Park Corner, 1932
42 Detroit, Michigan, Section of Street Plan
43 Oxford Street, London, 1932
44 Welwyn Garden City, A Residential Street in
45 Leeds and Bradford Region, Treatment of Intersection
46 Detroit, Separation of Highways near
47 Arterial Roads, Suggested Sections of
48 The New Forest, Parkway in
49 Dorchester, Park Walk in a Street
50 Kensington Gardens, Parkway
51 Westchester County, N.Y., Hutchinson River Parkway
52 Niagara Falls (Ontario), Parkway under Construction at
53 Detroit, Superhighway near
54 Ribbon Development on The Portsmouth Road
55 Ribbon Development near St. Albans, Herts
56 The Bristol-Birmingham Road near Birmingham
57 Vancouver, Stanley Park
58 Newton (Mass.), Burr Playground
59 The North Downs
60 The Seven Sisters, Sussex
61 Road Ribbons, Contrasts in
62 Unsightly Hoardings near Edgware
63 Empire Marketing Board Posters
64 Letchworth, Wading Pool in Howard Park
65 Filling Station in Ashdown Forest
66 Avebury, Wiltshire, Old Cottage and Druid Stones
67 Unsightly Filling Station at Avebury
68 China Walk, London, Before Redevelopment
69 China Walk, Present Development
70 Hampstead Garden Suburb, Flats with Open Surroundings
71 Chamberlain House, Ossulston Estate, London
72 Kemsley Village, Kent
73 Kemsley, An Example of Recentralization
74 & 75. Economy in Estate Development, Diagrams Illustrating
76 Welwyn Garden City, Brockett Close
77 Welwyn Garden City, Delcott Close
78 Ottawa The Government Centre
79 Cardiff Civic Centre
80 Cramond, Edinburgh, Proposed Development of Sea Front
81 Newquay, Cornwall, Proposed Cliff Park and Coastal Road
82 Kingsway and the Strand, London
83 Kingsway Improvement Scheme, Plan of
84 Charing Cross Bridge Scheme, Plan for High Level Station
85 Charing Cross Bridge Scheme, Perspective View of Proposed Low Level Station
86 Croydon Airport
87 Southampton Docks, Reclamation Scheme
88 Regional Planning Areas in England, Map showing
 
 

 

 
 

In this first excerpt which is from the Introduction, Adams discusses the problems of overcrowding in cities, comparing the views of H. G. Wells with the supporters of garden cities.

 
 

INTRODUCTION

 
 

Decentralization and Recentralization
(excerpt)

There has been much controversy and changing opinion during the past thirty years with regard to what has been called decentralization.

The change of opinion in regard to this matter may in one sense be regarded as representing an advance in theory of town planning; an advance which has been the result, in part, of the development of new factors in town development and, in part, of the experience that there are evils in decentralization as well as in centralization.

The evils of congestion in centres are a consequence of badly organized and ill-planned centralization but not of centralization in itself. The remedy is to be found neither by stemming the tide of outward movement from the centres nor by artificially promoting the outward flow without any improvement of organization and planning.

For ourselves we prefer the term recentralization to define the kind of movement that is wanted to relieve congestion in existing centres. Sporadic and scattered decentralization of industry and population, and particularly of residential population alone has proved to be a cause of such evils as ribbon development. One effect has been the unnecessary spoiling of much of the country adjacent to large centres of population, and another the waste of energy, time and money in unnecessary travel owing to the wide separation of places of residence from places of work.

It is of interest to recall here the arguments of Mr. H. G. Wells in his Anticipations and of Mr. Ebenezer Howard in his Garden Cities of To-morrow on the subject of decentralization. Both books were published towards the close of the nineteenth century.

ANTICIPATIONS OF H. G. WELLS. Wells predicted the possibility of London and Berlin growing to twenty millions, and New York and Chicago to forty millions in population. He claimed, however, that "even forty millions over 31,000 square miles of territory is, in comparison with forty millions over 50 square miles a highly diffused population." He suggested that among the factors that would continue to promote diffusion were the passion for Nature, expressed or disguising itself as a passion for golf or some other sport; secondly, the charm of cultivation and love of beauty; and thirdly, the demand for a real home in the shape of a private house or cottage in its own grounds. Added to these he saw that people would continue to appreciate the healthfulness of the country for younger children and the wholesome isolation from irritating, noisy and dirty atmosphere and streets.

Against these forces there were, and have continued to be, others that Wells thought would diminish in strength; for instance, he visualized some diminution of the advantages of shopping in highly centralized areas. His expectations have proved to be well founded, for in recent years there has been a great increase in suburban shops and a consequent enlargement of suburban business districts. While the most central shopping districts still maintain their strength in attracting business, they do this in face of growing congestion that is tending more and more to reduce their accessibility. Thus the great department store is not overwhelming the small suburban tradesmen to the extent that it did. It is finding it necessary to establish branches in suburban areas. Wells correctly anticipated the doubtful permanence of the delivery organization of these great stores. He anticipated it was conceivable that specialized shops would return. Access to good schools and to the doctor formerly operated to keep people of restricted means in central areas of big cities. It no longer does so. A strong force he anticipated would be more difficult to get rid of was the love of crowds, which included love of amusement and the theatre, of brilliantly lighted streets, of the excitement of the city. But even these cravings are being gratified in large measure as outlying districts develop their own neighbourhood centres. Families are able to do their shopping, enjoy the excitement of crowded and lighted streets and make visits to the theatre without going to the central parts of cities. Londoners engaged in business or professional work still regard London offices as essential, although there has been some dispersal of office work towards the environs in recent years.

Wells went so far as to say that the old town or city would become obsolete and be replaced by outlying residential districts all laced together by new arterial highways. Such districts would be more scattered and more abundantly wooded than existing cities. At least a part of the region would develop its own differences of type and of style. Through the varied country would run new, wide roads with clusters of buildings having their own social conveniences, probably mixing with islands of agriculture. These urban communities, as Wells viewed them, did not need to be any less pleasant or fair than the countryside districts of his day, for with the increase of cities in proper form of growth the essential charm of the country need not disappear. Boundary lines of municipalities would have no meaning, as adjacent municipal areas would have a common centre and be drawn together by a network of communications.

Wells was right in his prophecy of the direction that growth would take, but he failed to see how it would destroy the countryside, unless the spreading population were centralized in new communities rather than scattered in thin lines along arterial roads.

GARDEN CITY PRINCIPLES. The principles set forth by Howard, and later acted upon in building two garden cities at Letchworth and Welwyn, differed from those which underlay the anticipations of Wells. Howard wished to create new centres of population and industry with a view to reducing the pressure on the old centres and the continual expansion of great urban regions. He did not advocate wider diffusion of London, for instance, in scattered settlements all focusing on one centre, but the creation of distinct communities, as independent as possible of existing centres. Although the two methods differed they were both based on the idea that the time was soon coming when urban regions like London would have to get relief from congestion by a combined process of decentralization and recentralization.

In both conceptions the ideal presented was to make the town more healthy by introducing more of the advantages of the country, and to make the country more attractive and healthy by extending to it more of the advantages of the city. This ideal may be regarded as sound so long as it is based on economic tendency, as it appears to be, and so long as new forms of growth are properly planned to avoid the evils that have been proved to accompany haphazard development.

The garden cities founded by Howard are showing the way towards a new conception of the principles on which modern cities should be encouraged to expand in preserving open areas within and about cities for agriculture as well as to encourage the development of new urban centres.

A productive agricultural belt or wedge should be as essential as the public park or playground in the larger urban regions of the future. Well-planned centres and sub-centres with large open spaces surrounding them form the ideal arrangement. If the large modern industrial city is to be preserved from decay and disintegration when it grows still larger, it must develop a system of lungs on a greater scale than hitherto between its surrounding nerve centres. This system of open space should include productive areas whether of forest or cultivated fields as well as areas for active recreation. The need of the population for unspoilt natural open space is greater than its need for recreative space and greater than it is practicable to provide on a non-productive basis. Large areas of land near and within towns can be more economically used for agricultural production than for building, because they are either inaccessible or otherwise unsuitable for building.

 
 

 

 
 

This second excerpt, from Chapter I, is concerned with garden cities and garden suburbs.

 
 

CHAPTER I
 
EARLY PHASES OF
THE MODERN TOWN PLANNING MOVEMENT

(excerpt)

 
 

Garden Cities and Suburbs

The places we have been describing were villages developed around single industries. The objectives of the founders were to obtain room for expansion of their factories and good living conditions for their workers. Incidentally they proved the economic value of removing an industry from a crowded centre to an open situation in the environs of a city, where land was cheap and transportation facilities could be provided on the most modern principles. They also proved the practicability of moving the workers as well as the plant and of increasing their efficiency as a result of the movement so long as good housing conditions and social amenities were provided.

In proportion as such schemes were carried out without too much paternalism, that is, without the employer attempting to control the workers outside the factory to a greater degree in the factory village than in the larger city, they have been both commercially and socially a success. But they were indications of how to solve the problem rather than effective solutions; for it is obvious that only a few great manufacturers could follow such examples by providing the capital necessary to house their workers. Moreover, the danger of paternalism, or even suspicion of its presence, must always be a detriment in a community that is initiated by an employer of labour.

In 1898, about the time that Mr. Cadbury was finding his feet in establishing Bournville, Mr. (later Sir) Ebenezer Howard published the book entitled Garden Cities of To-morrow, to which we have referred in previous chapters. Howard advocated the establishment of self-contained industrial communities by organized efforts of private citizens. The history of the origin and progress of Garden City movement has been fully described elsewhere. We will not attempt to do more here than to give a summary of the principles on which the movement was founded and to indicate its influence in promoting scientific town planning.

These principles were :-

(1) The acquisition of a large agricultural estate served by convenient means of transport by rail; its development, in part, as a site for a new town by attracting industries and a working population; and its reservation, in other part, as a permanent agricultural belt.

(2) The restriction of the size of the town to an area which would permit it to function as a self-contained community and with all facilities necessary for a healthy and convenient social life.

(3) The retention of the ownership of the land by a Company or Trust so as to maintain the principles on which it was established, including the distribution of all profits derived from converting part of the land from agricultural to building uses, and from sale of power, light and other utilities; after allowing for a certain fixed dividend on the capital employed.

(4) The planning of the land and the development of roads, streets, sanitary services, and recreation spaces, so as to provide good conditions for both industrial and residential occupation.

LETCHWORTH. Based on these principles a new town was planned and has been developed at Letchworth, in Hertfordshire, on an estate of 3 ,800 acres (since increased to 4,500) acquired in 1903. In the respects in which we are chiefly concerned this experiment has been a great success. It soon demonstrated to the public satisfaction, first, that decentralization of industry must proceed side by side with decentralization of population to obtain relief of congestion in existing cities; second, that effective town planning could only be obtained by dealing with land before it was built upon; and that there was no sound economic reason for crowding houses on the land above an average density of 10 or 12 per acre, thereby permitting each house to have garden space.

Mr. Howard's theories in certain main features were an elaboration of those which Mr. Lever and Mr. Cadbury had proved to be sound in practice - namely, that it would pay manufacturers to move from crowded Cities like London to new sites where land could be acquired at agricultural value, and that workers could be persuaded to move along with the factories. It was recognized in Mr. Howard's conception, as in the other developments, that any site chosen for a garden city must have good transportation facilities; that the developing company must make provision for supplying water, power, and light; and that it should have adequate and wholesome housing accommodation. Starting de novo gave opportunities for this provision being made in accordance with a well-conceived plan and more healthfully and economically than in existing crowded cities that had grown up without planning. Howard's theoretical elaboration of the Port Sunlight-Bournville practice was the conception of a city of many diversified factories providing occupation for a wide variety of workers; a complete small city and not a mere village or suburb; and a city in which the increment of value created by converting the agricultural land into building land would provide both an economic foundation for its commercial success and a fund for benefiting the community as a whole, and not only a few individuals.

While in variety of function he thought of a comprehensive city, in size he conceived of a restricted community. The urban area was to be artificially limited to provide for a population of about 30,000, the method of restriction being the opposite to that of building a wall, namely, of establishing a belt of land permanently reserved for agriculture. Expansion of the city beyond the above limit was to be provided for by forming a new city region outside the agricultural belt. Incidentally, this reservation of farming territory on the borders of the city was to provide for growing food near to a new market with the resulting economies of such proximity between producer and consumer.

It is not necessary here to examine in what respects and in what degrees the ideals of Howard bore fruit or were barren in result when put to the test of practical experience. Some of the things he counted on most, for instance, the extent of increases in value of raw land due to building, and the commercial value of an agricultural belt did not come out as well as he anticipated. But the benefits of town planning, of spacious housing conditions, of providing room and facilities for recreation, and of deriving profit from a well-organized system of production of gas and electricity have all been as great as he visualized.

Town planning law in England, as compared with that of other countries, probably derives its chief significance from what it contains as a result of the garden city movement. This significance is in the breaking down of the barriers to restriction of building densities, with the effect of removing the chief difficulty in obtaining healthy housing accommodation. Largely as a result of the Garden City movement the standard of housing density in English town planning schemes is now 12 to the acre on the average, with 20 as a possible maximum, instead of 20 and 40, which formerly prevailed.

Letchworth has now many industries and its population in 1931 was 14,454. Its plan was prepared in 1903 by Messrs. Barry Parker and Raymond Unwin.

WELWYN. Although the garden city at Welwyn was not developed until after the passing of the Town Planning Act it may be referred to here as a further experiment promoted by Howard to test his theories in practice. It has been established in accordance with the same principles on which Letchworth was founded. Being nearer to London by some 14 miles, however, it is less self-contained and, although it has a considerable number of industries, it has a large resident population that travels daily to and from work in London. In the 1931 Census its population was given as 8,585 and showed a decennial increase of 1019.3 per cent., the most rapid increase in England.

The Welwyn estate covered 2,400 acres and was planned by Messrs. Louis de Soissons and Arthur W. Kenyon. It is an example of good formal treatment in which the cul-de-sac street has been largely used with greater success than at Letchworth. Also, it possesses unusually fine architectural features.

HAMPSTEAD GARDEN SUBURB. When Tomorrow was published, Mrs. (now Dame) Henrietta Barnett was carrying out, with her husband, Canon Barnett, their great social work in Toynbee Hall in the East of London. She had already thought of the need of developing a suburb outside of London where she could create a social experiment that would show the way to secure better housing conditions for those living in the crowded districts. Through her efforts, and aided by the interest aroused by the Garden Cities movement, there was established at Hampstead an important experiment in building a garden suburb. She enlisted the services of Mr. Raymond Unwin to make a plan for the suburb and develop it as a place of residence for different classes of the community. It was one of her objects to secure that the comparatively rich should live in the same neighbourhood as the comparatively poor.

In its town planning features, which alone interest us, Hampstead Garden Suburb is probably the best planned of modern neighbourhoods in the London Region (see Frontispiece). Its features have been regarded as a model in other parts of Great Britain, as well as abroad. It has achieved a unique success in the following respects :-

(1) In establishing a combination of circulating roads and non-traffic streets and spaces, which provide for the convenience of movement, along with the unusual privacy and restfulness of the situation of the houses. In this connection its design included a number of cul-de-sac streets in several forms that proved successful both from æsthetic and utilitarian points of view.

(2) The segregation of the business to the edges of the main residential units of the estate on the abutting main thoroughfares in combination with the feature of having the community centre detached from the shopping centres. The absence of shops from the centre where the institutes, churches, etc., are situated makes the central square in every way more attractive, interesting and valuable to the inhabitants.

(3) In creating a comparatively self-contained neighbourhood community in all respects, except in providing places of work for the residents. The inhabitants have all the amenities of social life in the neighbourhood and only go to the main centres for means of livelihood or occasional visits to large shops or central theatres.

From an architectural point of view the suburb has also been, especially in its earlier development, well designed and arranged. An interesting variety has been obtained in accordance with sound principles of design and in combination with most agreeable landscape effects. The total area of the Estate is about 652 acres. There are 1,800 houses on the older part of the estate, controlled by the Hampstead Garden Suburb Trust, which part covers an area of 240 acres. In addition, a large number of houses have been erected on the remaining 412 acres, being developed by Co-partnership societies.

CO-PARTNERSHIP HOUSING ESTATES. One of the outcomes of the combined garden city and town planning movements was the development of the co-partnership movement in housing, under the leadership of the late Henry Vivian, Sir John Brunner, Bart., Earl Grey and others interested in co-operative methods. This movement had the effect of promoting the establishment of a number of neighbourhood developments in which town planning principles were successfully employed. Some of the best of these co-partnership enterprises were associated with the Garden City and Garden Suburb projects. Large parts of Letchworth Garden City and Hampstead Garden Suburb have been developed by the Co-Partnership Tenants, Ltd., and subsidiary companies. Independent estate developments also have been carried out by the same group of companies in a number of places such as at Brentham, in Ealing. The total area in process of development is 750 acres inclusive of the 412 in the Hampstead Garden Suburb already alluded to. In all cases architectural advice was employed in securing the application of good design to the lay-out of the estates and building of houses, and each co-partnership estate has some features that represent an advance in neighbourhood planning over what existed before they were established.

 
 

 

 
 

This final excerpt I have chosen is from Chapter XI and is about culs-de-sac.

 
 

CHAPTER XI
 
LOCAL DEVELOPMENT AND SITE PLANNING

 
 

Elements in the Site Plan
(excerpt)

CLOSES AND CULS-DE-SAC. What we have said as to the mistake of mere pattern making in planning the general lay-out of streets applies also to the closed-in places and culs-de-sac. Perhaps there is no detail in site planning that has led to so much imitation as the planning of culs-de-sac. Yet it is difficult to imagine any detail that requires more originality in design or closer study of each case. Simple conventional patterns are easy to imitate, but such departures from them as are made by skilful planners to meet special local conditions cannot successfully be reproduced unless the conditions are identical.

In recent years the necessity for economy, for privacy and for freedom from the noise and vibration of street traffic, and the desire for architectural effect in grouping of small houses, have led to the increased use of the cul-de-sac and close in new residential developments. The advantages of the cul-de-sac can only be obtained when it is planned in relation to the general street system of an area. When used without proper discrimination as part of a complete plan, or for some selfish reason, such as closing a street in the financial interest of an individual owner, it may lead to inconvenience and waste.

The use of culs-de-sac may be justified even when the cost of development is greater with them than without them. But usually it will be found that the introduction of culs-de-sac cheapens or, at least, does not increase the cost of streets and services. This can only be ascertained by preparation of comparative estimates of cost of land, sewers and drains, water and lighting services, roads and walks, and as to whether or not the closed-in streets will result in inconvenience to local traffic.

Culs-de-sac layout diagrams
(Fig. 74 and Fig. 75)

Barry Parker

(click image to enlarge)

Mr. Barry Parker, in a paper on Economy in Estate Development,* pointed out that "consideration is given to every penny spent on the cottages while many inconsidered pounds per cottage are being wasted by roads not being so contrived as to afford access to as many cottages as they might . . . . had all that is now known about the innumerable ways in which a given length of road may be made to afford access to a greater number of cottages been applied to the lay-out." The paper is illustrated by a number of comparative diagrams of considerable interest. Two of these are reproduced here, of which Mr. Parker says: "How frequently development from a 'rim' road inwards, such as is shown in Fig. 74, has been adopted without its being realized that development from a 'hub' outwards as shown in Fig. 75, by substituting a small ring road for a large one, effects a saving which certainly runs into four figures and at the same time provides access to 32 more cottages, and so still further reduces the lengths and costs of roads per cottage." The diagrams reproduced illustrate in a striking manner the possibilities of economy in estate development.

[* Published in the Journal of the Town Planning Institute, June, 1928.]

The attitude of the local authority to closed-in streets or places has to be considered before deciding upon their adoption. If the local authority refuse to take over dead-end streets for public maintenance, it may well be a determining factor in deciding against their use.

Local conditions and demands of purchasers or tenants of houses will have a great effect upon the widths and design of approaches to houses on cul-de-sac streets. If the principle be accepted that every dwelling must have a garage incorporated as part of the house or situated on the premises, there is considerably less possibility of effecting any great economy in road construction in the case of cul-de-sac development. Where, however, as in Welwyn Garden City, it is considered satisfactory to provide private garages accessible from the main road, a cul-de-sac can be satisfactorily served with an 8 to 12 foot carriageway and a large turn around, the latter providing facilities for standing vehicles.

There are matters of detail connected with drainage, the laying of water and electrical supply mains, and other services that can only be dealt with economically when these details are taken into consideration in making the street plan.

The principles of cul-de-sac development, combined with the honeycomb type of lay-out, have been adopted by Mr. Barry Parker in planning an estate at Wythenshawe, for the Manchester Corporation. Some of the best examples of the practicable application of cul-de-sac streets, and of open quadrangles with private driveway entrances, are to be seen at Welwyn Garden City and Hampstead Garden Suburb.

The manner in which each piece of land is laid out in streets and building plots determines to a great extent the final appearance of the district in which it lies. A skeleton town plan may provide a good basis for town development, and yet the final result may be bad if the areas intervening between the main thoroughfares consist of a conglomeration of badly planned and unco-ordinated units.

A town planning scheme should contain provisions for the control of estate developments, for extending co-operation between local authorities and owners of property to the planning of sites, notwithstanding that the details of site planning are best omitted from such schemes. There are several examples of good planning carried out by private individuals and corporations ranging from the small industrial village of a single manufacturer to the Garden Cities of Letchworth and Welwyn. Since the war, however, the most extensive site planning has been undertaken by local authorities under the guidance of the Ministry of Health, and there now exists throughout the country a great number of well-planned cottage estates. The great experience gained from the planning and development of these schemes should be used as a basis for drawing up a more comprehensive statement of principles than now exists, for the guidance of land developers in future.

 
 

 

 

Selected illustrations

 
 

Hampstead Garden Suburb

Photo by Aerofilms, Ltd.

(click image to enlarge)

 

Plan of Letchworth Garden City
showing town development in 1931
and part of agricultural belt

Based upon the Ordnance Survey Map
with the sanction of the Controller
of H. M. Stationery Office

(click image to enlarge)

 

Plan of Welwyn Garden City Estate
showing town development in 1931

(click image to enlarge)

 

Open Housing Development in Welwyn Garden City

(click image to enlarge)

 

A Residential Street
Guessens Road, Welwyn Garden City

(click image to enlarge)

 

Wading Pool in Howard Park, Letchworth

(click image to enlarge)

 

Flats with Open Surroundings
Hampstead Garden Suburb

(click image to enlarge)

 

Brockett Close, Welwyn Garden City

(click image to enlarge)

 

Delcott Close, Welwyn Garden City

(click image to enlarge)