ALAN CASH - web pages
Welwyn Garden City
Author: J. M. Richards
Published: 1938 (first edition, second impression) by The Architectural Press
Format: Hardback 9" by 6" with 172
It should be said right away that most of the illustrations in this book are taken from the late Nathaniel Lloyd's "History of the English House." That, as the standard work on the subject, is not likely to be superseded. Its comprehensiveness, however, and the intensive scholarship its late author brought to its compilation, necessitated a format which militates to some degree against its convenient use as a handbook; and it was the suggestion of the publishers that the immense amount of material contained in the book might be drawn upon for the purpose of making a very much smaller and greatly simplified version which might have its own more popular usefulness.
This book consists therefore of a selected series of illustrations, largely taken from the aforementioned work, to which some brief notes are added to help them tell the history of English domestic architecture. For the chapter and verse that give the history its authority the reader must, of course, refer back to Nathaniel Lloyd.
In one respect the ground covered is a little different from that covered in Nathaniel Lloyd's history: the present work has been continued up to date. The parent work finished with the end of the Regency period, except for a few Early Victorian examples which were included to indicate the trend of the nineteenth century. The author was quite right not to go further, for a definitive history cannot be written until sufficient time has elapsed to allow the subject to fall into its proper perspective. In the case of a simple handbook, however, that is concerned as much with the facts of history as with their causes and significance, to link the past with the present day by emphasizing that which is still within the period of our own memories is one way of making the distant past more real. The most recent history has in any case the greatest importance as it is out of it that our present usage is in process of evolving. Accordingly, equivalent illustrations have been added to those borrowed from Nathaniel Lloyd to cover the nineteenth century and the first third of the twentieth.
A word should be said about the purpose of this book. A handbook about architecture in such a simple form serves chiefly as an aid to the identification and dating of examples, but the obvious danger of such simplification is that it easily degenerates into a formula. There is little virtue in being able to say: "thin window-bars — that means late Georgian," or "cast-iron balconies — early Victorian." Such guide-book labels need to be given vitality by an understanding of their meaning. In the notes that form the text of this book a definite attempt has been made, while still giving the essential information about the characteristic details of each period, to explain the evolution of the English house not as a series of unaccountable changes in design, but as a series of effects traceable to comprehensible human causes, whether of the nature of changes in habits of living, in fashions of taste, in available materials or in building technique.
In regarding architecture thus as a material manifestation of social life, the documentary value of the continuous tradition seen in the English house can be fully appreciated.
Finally, it should hardly be necessary to say that this little book could not have been compiled without the kind permission of the Trustees of the late Nathaniel Lloyd to use his work as a quarry of illustrations and information.
J. M. R.
|c. 700||A priest's cell at Dingle, Ireland|
An illustrated history of
English domestic architecture cannot easily go back earlier than 1066,
because few examples of pre-Norman houses survive. The houses of the Romans
disappeared soon after they retired from the country, and left no influence
behind them. The Saxon period, though achieving occasional permanence
in its churches (often through the re-use of Roman materials), leaves
practically no domestic remains, as houses were primitive and built of
impermanent materials: timber, thatch and "Wattle and daub"
— that is, mud reinforced with reeds and sticks. A
few, like this one in Ireland, were built of stone. In this case, although
the material is exceptional, the shape is much less so, as it is not based
on the logic of stone construction but on the building tradition of the
turf hut. The alternative method of construction was an arrangement of
timbers, from which the mediæval half-timber work descended.
|c. 1130||The Keep of Rochester Castle|
Although the introduction
of stone for regular building purposes by the Normans begins the period
when examples of domestic architecture survive, these examples are by
no means typical dwellings of the people. Stone was introduced for purposes
of fortification. The political organization of the time demanded a secure
nucleus round which each local feudal unit could gather itself; and the
typical surviving Norman building, excluding ecclesiastical buildings,
is therefore the castle, which combined the functions of a dwelling-place
for a lord and his retainers with that of a fortress. For many years following
the Conquest it had to be strong enough to resist attacks by any rebellion
of Saxons. The peasant's dwelling meanwhile remained the primitive hut
of wattle and daub or rough timber with thatched roof.
|c. 1180||The Manor House, Boothby Pagnel, near Grantham|
This is one of the few remaining
secular buildings of the twelfth century other than a fortress. It is
a country manor-house, built of stone. As with most dwellings of this
period of any pretensions at all, the principal room (with fireplace)
is on the upper floor, reached by an external stair; a defensive Norman-French
custom which superseded the Saxon one of ground-floor habitation. In Scotland
this custom, including the construction of external stair-cases, persisted
as late as the eighteenth century. The four-light window in the centre
of the long wall is a fifteenth century addition, but note elsewhere the
similarity of the detail to that of Norman or Transitional churches. There
was no separate style of building for ecclesiastical purposes.
|c. 1190||Bamburgh Castle, Northumberland|
In the late Norman period
the great stone fortress reached the climax of its development. It was
in effect a town in itself, centring round the keep but completely self-contained
within its bastioned Walls. Besides the feudal baron or commander whose
seat it was, and who lived in the keep, the whole local population who
were his retainers, except the peasants, lived within its walls, and even
the latter retreated there in times of danger. Being primarily a fortress
its arrangement on the site was dictated by necessities of defence, and
its architectural characteristics were tremendously thick walls, small
windows and short spans, the former for comfort and defence and the latter
the result of restricted experience of the possibilities of stone construction.
|c. 1240 and 1291||Stokesay Castle, Shropshire. View from the south-west and plan|
The next stage is the fortified
manor-house. Architecture began to be less exclusively military, and to
provide primitive comforts such as sanitation, fireplaces and glass in
the windows. The rectangular portion of Stokesay (see plan) is a typical
early mediæval house, a tower and walls being also provided in this
case because of its situation on the lawless Welsh marches. The timber
upper storey of the north tower is an addition of the seventeenth century.
|c. 1260-1280||Little Wenham Hall, Suffolk|
The typical mediæval
house is by this time a dwelling in form rather than simply a habitable
castle keep. In the case of Little Wenham Hall, a knight's mansion of
the thirteenth century, the main rooms are still on an upper floor. The
tower contains a chapel with a chamber above. There was probably an outside
staircase in the same position as the later wooden one shown in the picture.
The house is built of brick, here reintroduced into English architecture
for the first time since the Romans.
|c. 1341||Penshurst Place, Kent. The north entrance to the Great Hall and the plan|
The plan, as at Penshurst,
centres round the great hall, which was the common living-room for the
whole population of the house and the sleeping-place of all but the lord
and his lady. For their use Penshurst provides a chamber leading off the
dais of the hall, with a "solar" or bed-sitting-room above.
This design again shows the same features, including windows with decorated
tracery, as churches of the same date. A significant fact about Penshurst
Place is that it was built by a London merchant, Sir John de Poulteney,
which indicates the increasing prosperity of the burgher class. Their
prosperity came with the greater security of property and their comparative
freedom from the domination of feudal landlords and soldiers.
|c. 1350||The Fish Tower, Meare, Somerset|
Meanwhile the peasants —
away from the towns all others still lived within the fortifications of
the great house — dwelt in houses not
greatly different from those of their ancestors, and of almost equally
impermanent materials, so that few examples survive. It must be repeated
that the examples we have been illustrating are the great houses of the
kingdom, or the collective dwelling-places of the feudal groups. Architecturally
the ordinary individual has not yet come on the scene. However, on this
and the facing page are two fourteenth-century houses of somewhat less
pretentious kind. That at Meare, in Somerset, a country example, is of
a simplicity of design more characteristic of an earlier century, though
the end of the building not shown in the photograph contains a window
with flowing tracery. The principal room was on the first floor, the ground
floor being divided into a kitchen and two small rooms. Access to the
first floor was by an outside staircase leading to the round-arched doorway
in the centre.
|c. 1400||Grevel House, Chipping Campden|
Although town houses of the
smaller kind began at an earlier period than country dwellings to be constructed
in more permanent materials (particularly after a great fire in London
in 1135, that almost destroyed the largely wooden town), early examples
are rare because of the constant replacement that is characteristic of
town economy. The small though comparatively solid town house of this
period is another indication of the growth of a merchant middle class.
The centre window is an addition of the seventeenth century.
|c. 1480||Cothay Manor, Wellington, Somerset. East front and ground floor plan|
The fifteenth century saw
a rapid development of the manor-house, following the break up of the
centralized feudal authority. Cothay Manor is quite typical in plan, but
is also directly linked with the mediæval plan already observed,
retaining the great hall in which most of the life was lived. Though the
large windows on the ground floor show that defence was no longer a first
consideration (also that glass was now less of a rarity), the fortified
plan persists in the placing of the house within a courtyard entered by
|c. 1490||Synyards, Otham, Kent|
Synyards, another hall house,
shows by contrast with Cothay Manor the differences that local materials
and craftsmanship were bringing to architectural style. Somerset is a
stone county and its building style was closely allied to that of the
builders of earlier mediæval fortifications who imported stone for
its strength. In Kent, where stone was lacking, a timber style was evolved
based on the tradition of the peasants' huts and barns. The timber frame
was filled with wattle and plaster. Synyards had a floor inserted in the
late sixteenth century to make two storeys out of the original great hall,
which occupied the whole of the recessed centre portion; but the exterior
remains little altered. The gable and chimneys are seventeenth century.
|c. 1500||Rufford Hall, Lancashire|
A hall interior of the beginning
of the sixteenth century, with a late sixteenth-century fireplace (earlier
there would have been a central hearth). The picture shows the upper end
of the hall with a coved ceiling over the high table and a bench along
the wall behind it. On the right is an opening to a bay window. The walls
are of timber framing, filled in with plaster; though by this time it
was usual for woven tapestry hangings or painted cloths to cover the bare
plaster of earlier interiors. An alternative wall-covering fashionable
in the fifteenth century was leather, stamped with decorative designs.
The hall Windows were filled with heraldic stained glass. In a recess
stood a "cup-board" (or sideboard) with tiers of shelves for
the display of plate, and well-made oak tables and chairs had taken the
place of the rough trestles and benches of the thirteenth and fourteenth
|c. 1520||The Tribunal House, Glastonbury, Somerset|
The Tudor period saw considerable
growth of town life, and this town house from Glastonbury shows an architecture
not only entirely domesticated, but taking its character from its situation
on a street. It is designed as a façade, composed of the same unit
repeated (the door, which breaks the symmetry of the front, occupies,
as the plan shows, exactly the space of one pair of windows). The detail
is characteristically Tudor: mullioned windows with four- centred arched
heads, a similar head over the doorway, and an oriel window which lights
the principal room on the first floor.
|c. 1525||Compton Wynyates, Warwickshire|
|Cowdray House, Midhurst, Sussex. Destroyed by fire in 1793|
|Moreton Old Hall, Cheshire|
The great country mansion
of the same period as the town house just described was casually designed,
with a confusion of roofs, towers and twisted brick chimneys that made
houses like Compton Wynyates the model that architects returned to when
picturesqueness came to be sought after —
see page 61 [see 1870 Cragside, below]. In the
sixteenth century Compton Wynyates was encircled by a moat, and these
country mansions often retained a considerable amount of military character,
though more as a form of heraldic display than from necessity. Cowdray,
for example, illustrates a common plan, which consists of a courtyard,
into which look the principal rooms, entered by a monumental gateway.
The contrast between the architecture of Cowdray and that of Moreton Old
Hall, a manor-house of slightly later date, indicates again the differences
that local materials and craftsmanship were responsible for. Moreton Old
Hall is a fine example of the half-timber work that evolved in regions
where stone was not economical to use —
particularly in Herefordshire and Cheshire. The timber frame, which rested
on a stone base to raise it sufficiently above the ground to preserve
the wood, was filled in with lathing and plaster. In other parts of the
country brickwork ("brick-nogging") was used as infilling. Gable
barge-boards and other details were here richly decorated, but often the
only decoration was the geometrical pattern contrived from the timbers
|c. 1595||Hunts Farm, Crundale, Kent|
By the end of the sixteenth
century ordinary building construction was sufficiently substantial for
a number of more homely houses to have survived (very few so-called mediæval
cottages are of an earlier date than the middle of the century). This
farmhouse has the usual timber-frame construction and a characteristic
Kentish moulded brick chimney. The chief differences between the construction
of this period and earlier half-timber work is that large rectangular
panels filled with plaster have replaced the more closely-spaced timbers
of the fifteenth century. Compare this house, for example, with that shown
on page 17 [see 1490 Synyards, above].
|c. 1580||Wollaton Hall, Notts. The north front and the ground plan|
First signs of the revolution
that the more monumental architecture of England was soon to undergo.
The late sixteenth century, the Elizabethan period, displays a degree
of exuberance and fantasy that the popular idea of the period by no means
exaggerates. Finally released from the limitations imposed by necessities
of defence, and with a whole alphabet of new decorative motifs introduced
by craftsmen from Renaissance Italy and from the Low Countries, design
in this transitional period blossomed out into a rich panoply of display.
Wollaton is a romantic pile, still Gothic in spirit but largely composed
of classical units extravagantly misapplied. The plan can be seen still
to retain its great hall as the nucleus of a more sophisticated sequence
of galleries. The hall is lighted only through the tower windows. The
ambitiously symmetrical exterior contrasts with the haphazard exterior
of Compton Wynyates.
|c. 1575||Gilling Castle, Yorkshire. The Great Children|
The interior of the Elizabethan
great house was as imposing as the exterior. Imported Continental craftsmen
contributed the fashionable Italian flavour to their embellishment of
what was still a Gothic background. Oak panelling succeeded the tapestry
hangings of the preceding period, and was often inlaid or painted. This
room has a plaster ceiling of the pendant type. Heraldry provided the
motif of all ornament, including that of the stained glass in the windows,
though there are already indications in this interior of the elaborate
strapwork and carving of miniature classical orders characteristic of
thc Jacobean period.
|c. 1607-11||Hatfield House, Hertfordshire. Robert Lyminge, architect|
|Cobham Hall, Kent. The entrance|
By the end of the Jacobean
period the influence of the Italian Renaissance had spread beyond the
ornament into the symmetrical design of the house itself. There are no
gables and the roofs are hidden by pierced parapets, though the romantic
spirit still demanded a skyline broken by turrets and clusters of chimneys.
Exuberance especially shows itself in the porch, which was often entirely
classical, though applied to a still Gothic mansion.
|c. 1635||Broome Park, Denton, Kent|
This house at last begins to suggest the revolution in architecture that the Renaissance represents. Hatfield (previous page), in spite of Italian influence and its symmetrical galleried plan, still harks back, say, to Cowdray, but Broome Park looks forward to the later full development of the English Renaissance. The horizontal line and classical symmetry predominate, though still beneath a romantic roof-line displaying pedimented gables and varied groups of chimneys. Each façade is separately composed, and Renaissance details are used with knowledge and appreciation of their effect and are intelligibly translated into English brickwork.
The elaborately detailed gables and dormer windows,
all executed in cut and moulded brick, show the prevalent Dutch influence
(it was often by way of Holland that the fashions of the Renaissance passed
into England). They also illustrate the climax of skill in the craft of
brickwork, a fine tradition which dates from the elaborate twisted chimneys
of the Tudor period. The window frames and mullions are of painted wood.
The marble doorway at Broome Park was imported direct from Italy.
|1653||Unstone Hall, Derbyshire|
Meanwhile the humbler house
continues much closer to the tradition of preceding periods. Even the
detail belongs still to the Perpendicular period of the Gothic; and detail
is sparse, consisting only in label mouldings to the windows and mouldings
round the characteristic groups of chimneys. Local materials determine
the character of the structure: in this case thick walls of hard millstone
grit and low-pitched roof of heavy grey slates. The plan is a direct descendant
of the mediæval hall plan.
|c. 1680||A cottage at Little Barrington, Gloucestershire|
A cottage from another district
where use of the local stone produced its characteristic style. In this
case the roof is covered with stone slabs in diminishing sizes
— large at the eaves and small at the ridge. The stones
were specially cut to form the swept valley at the intersection of the
roofs. The small casement windows of metal set in deep stone mullions
are typical and, with the rest of the house, belong to a local tradition
so strong that almost identical design persisted right through the eighteenth
century. Observe the relationship of the house with the characteristic
dry walling of the same stone and thus with the landscape itself. Even
as late as this such solid construction for peasant dwellings was not
universal: primitive timber and even turf huts persisted, and chimneys
were a luxury.
|1692||Crown House, Newport, Essex|
|Lower Standard Farm, Ninfield, Sussex|
In other parts of England
there were equally strong local traditions in other materials. The top
picture shows the plaster pargeting, often decorated with geometrical
ornament, of East Anglia, and the lower picture shows mullioned windows
and moulded chimneys used in a simple brick farmhouse. In these two cases,
the date being a little later and the locality more accessible from London,
the country builder had absorbed the new Renaissance mannerisms to a considerable
degree, as seen in the door hood of the Essex house and in the cornice,
the quoins and the design of the doorway of the Sussex farmhouse.
|1618-35||The Queen's House, Greenwich. Inigo Jones, architect|
Meanwhile sophisticated urban
architecture had developed into a full acceptance of the Renaissance.
In Elizabethan and Jacobean times foreign craftsmen had brought only the
superficial ornaments of the Renaissance to England, usually by way of
Holland; now architects, a newly differentiated profession, paid visits
to Italy and brought back the essence of classical design itself. The
Queen's house at Greenwich was designed by Inigo Jones, and was the first
dwelling-house in England to be built in the full Italian manner. Inigo
Jones, in his capacity of Surveyor-General to the King, designed scenery
and settings for Court masques in the Italian style, and these played
an important part in familiarizing the public with the new style. The
drastic divergence of tendency in this period can be seen by comparing
this house with Hatfield, built only ten years earlier. The Queen's House,
modelled on an Italian palace, is built according to preconceived rules
of design. It is no longer, like the Jacobean house, a mere modification
of the mediæval house, which evolved out of building craftsmanship.
It is a design imposed on the builder by a mind outside his craft.
|c. 1662||Coleshill, Berkshire. Sir Roger Pratt, architect. The principal front and ground floor plan|
By the middle of the seventeenth
century the Renaissance was well established, and many fine mansions were
designed with full mastery of thc technique of disposing the parts with
proper proportion and emphasis. The lines of the exterior are now emphatically
horizontal, and absolute symmetry (in plan and elevation) has taken the
place of the balance of asymmetrical parts shown in the best mediæval
designs. The quality of the Coleshill design consists in such things as
the subtle spacing of the windows and the proportions of the roof and
great chimneys. A hipped roof, instead of the gables of fifty years earlier,
is a feature that English architects successfully combined with the Italian
|c. 1701||Mompesson House, Salisbury|
Throughout the second half
of the seventeenth century normal building enterprise was still retarded
by the effects of the Civil War and of the Plague, the Great Fire and
the Revolution of 1688, but in the eighteenth century there followed a
period of intensive building. Expansion of trade provided the funds, and
a prosperous aristocracy provided the interest in architectural experiment,
members of the aristocracy often themselves becoming amateur architects.
But besides the Italian mansions of the great, an important development
was that of the medium-sized residences of the upper middle classes, merchant
and professional, who were now entering on their period of dominating
influence in English life. These houses, whether as country villas or
in provincial towns, evolved into the most perfect English product of
the Renaissance. Their architects are mostly unknown, and were probably
not architects at all in the new sense, but belonged instead to the earlier
tradition of master-craftsmen, who were guided by the many books on classical
design then in circulation. It is this type of English house that shows
the influence of Sir Christopher Wren, who did not himself, so far as
is known, design any houses except his royal palaces, Hampton Court, Greenwich
and Marlborough House. Mompesson House, like many of the more pretentious
houses, was planned with a forecourt, entered by a wrought-iron gate.
In this case the whole house is of stone, but in other districts brick
or a combination of brick and stone was used with equal effect. The interiors
showed the same consistent taste in decoration and furnishing. They contained
fine broad staircases with railings of twisted balusters, pedimented doorways
and plaster ceilings robustly moulded. The walls of the staircase hall
illustrated are panelled in stucco plaster, a fashion which necessitated
the introduction of specialist Italian craftsmen. The commoner alternative
was wood panelling, framed by a raised or "bolection" moulding.
|1699||Rampyndene, Burwash, Sussex|
|No. 30 Queen Anne's Gate, formerly No. 11 Queen Square, London|
|No. 14 Took's Court, London|
Typical country and town
houses of the beginning of the eighteenth century, when the rules for
mastery of the new architectural language had been disseminated among
builders in all parts. The former shows the white-painted wooden cornice
that had superseded the former projecting eaves, the steep pitched roof
and dormer windows finished with lead flashings, and the elaborate hooded
doorway. It can be seen in the picture that this house, being in a country
district, retains on the upper floor the old leaded casement windows,
but the lower floor has sash windows, which were introduced during the
latter part of the seventeenth century and were by now in common use.
The town houses show the enrichment usually concentrated on the door,
leaving the plain windows to get their effect by repetition along the
street, an effect which is assisted by the practice of lining the reveals
of the windows with white plaster, as in the example on the right. In
the other example the woodwork of the flat-headed windows is set back
only one inch from the Wall surface, a tendency of this period which was
stopped by an Act of Parliament of 1709 requiring all windows in London
to be set back four and a half inches and to have arched heads.
|c. 1710||A house at Burford, Oxfordshire|
|Sudbrooke Park, Richmond, Surrey. James Gibbs, architect|
|Mereworth Castle, Kent. Colen Campbell, architect|
The work of the architects
of this period is known as Palladian, because it was based on the work
of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio (1518-1580), who was much studied
by English architects from Inigo Jones onwards. The rather severe rectangular
style of this house at Burford, with its large orders the full height
of the building, is typical of the smaller Palladian houses. The more
pretentious Palladian mansion (Sudbrooke Park) made a feature of its stone
portico and imposing flights of steps. Roofs were now hidden behind a
solid or balustraded parapet. Sometimes the admiration of Palladio's designs
was taken as far as the slavish imitation of his buildings. Mereworth
Castle (bottom picture) is an almost exact copy of his Villa Almerico
at Vicenza and was quite unsuitable for the English climate and requirements.
Lord Burlington, most famous of the aristocratic amateurs, had another
copy of the same Palladian villa built for him at Chiswick.
|1706-24||Blenheim Place, Oxfordshire. Sir John Vanbrugh, architect|
|Finchcocks, Goudhurst, Kent|
An original genius was Sir
John Vanbrugh whose imposing compositions, more Baroque than Palladian,
partake of the character of stage scenery (he was himself also a dramatist)
and are monumental rather than practical in plan. At Blenheim there is
a walk of more than a hundred yards from the kitchen to the dining-room.
Meanwhile the country squire, lower picture, rebuilt his mansion in the
fashion that had established itself in the town, though with the simplifications
and crudities brought to it by the local builder.
|c. 1734-61||Holkham Hall, Norfolk. William Kent, architect. The south front|
The great landowners of the
eighteenth century, when a knowledge of architecture was part of every
educated man's equipment, tried to outdo each other in the construction
of fine palaces. They took at the same time great interest both in the
growth of scientific farming and in the pictorial design of landscape.
The fine park in which Holkham Hall stands was laid out by the Earl of
Leicester on land reclaimed from the marshes. The house, which is on a
formal symmetrical plan with a central block of state apartments designed
to house the art collection brought back by its owner from Italy, is built
of cream-coloured brick and stone. William Kent, the architect, was one
of the first great architects to specialize also in the design of furniture.
|1749||Chesterfield House, London. Isaac Ware, architect|
Although the restraint imposed
by the canons of taste and scholarship kept the exteriors of English houses
relatively simple in design, the interiors and the furniture and fabrics
more closely followed Continental tendencies towards increasing decorativeness.
About 1740 the extreme French rococo style came into fashion, with its
scrolls, curves and lavish use of gilt and mirrors. Wall decorations were
generally of stucco, but wood panelling was not altogether discarded (panels
were of painted pine and were slightly sunk, with a small ovolo moulding
instead of the raised "bolection" moulding of the Wren period),
and wall-paper had been introduced. This was also the great age of English
furniture design. The master was Thomas Chippendale, who, using the favourite
wood of the period, mahogany, made designs for furniture which served
as patterns for every joiner for several generations.
|c. 1767||The Royal Crescent, Bath. John Wood the younger, architect|
The eighteenth century saw
the first planned towns in England. Civic qualities predominated at this
time as military qualities had predominated in the fifteenth century and
autocratic ones in the sixteenth and seventeenth. Squares, streets and
crescents were laid out, as notably in Bath, with the emphasis on the
effect of the whole rather than of the individual house. In the example
illustrated the repetition of the Ionic columns, two storeys in height,
and the curve of the crescent, are relied upon to give the effect of dignity.
Except for a simple cornice and balustrade there is no other ornament.
Spacious planning by means of the repetition of standardized units was
a feature of the Georgian age.
|c. 1760||A house at Deal, Kent|
Elegant small houses of the
second half of the eighteenth century are to be found in nearly every
town in Great Britain. Though the tier of bay windows is rather special,
this one is otherwise typical of South of England small builders' architecture
of this period, its details probably taken from one of the many text-books,
such as those of Batty Langley, which educated even village carpenters
in the rules of proportion and taste. It has a red brick front with cornices,
doorway and windows of painted wood (earlier these would have been of
moulded brick), a decorated fanlight over the door and window bars of
very thin section.
|c. 1780||A house near Rolvenden, Kent|
|c. 1795||A pair of cottages at Marden, Kent|
There are many regional variations
in different materials of the simple small house or cottage designed by
the local builder. The timber-framed example above, covered with painted
Weather-boarding, was built about 1780, but very similar ones continued
to be built for many years. The three-light window, with only the centre
portion made to open, was common at this time. Lower picture: another
type built in brick up to first-floor level and timber framing hung with
tiles above. Variations from the all-brick cottage were encouraged by
the tax on bricks, which was imposed in 1784 and not abolished until 1850.
|1780||No. 13 Devonshire Place, London|
|House in Adam Street, Adelphi, London. The brothers Adam, architects|
|The staircase at No. 1 Horse Guards Avenue, London|
Although Robert Adam and
his brothers occasionally designed in the conventional Palladian style,
their great influence on English architecture was on account of their
rebellion against the stereotyped use of the orders. They were also leaders
of the classical revival which marks the end of the eighteenth century.
This originated from the study of ancient Greek and Roman architecture
and from enthusiasm for the antique works of art which collectors brought
from the Continent, and whose details were copied in all forms of architectural
decoration. The brothers Adam are best known for the new style of interior
decoration which they introduced, and which they used in many town houses,
notably in the Adelphi, London, a speculative building enterprise of their
own. They were also responsible for introducing the use of stucco on the
exteriors of houses. The Adam interior is easily recognized by its very
characteristic ornament of a rather attenuated kind, the motifs being
medallions, swags, vases and other classical elements of Etruscan or Pompeian
origin. They were used in plaster ceilings and fireplaces and in relief
on the walls, the latter decoration being usually made from a patent "compo"
which the Adam brothers invented and which made the mass production of
decoration possible. The Adams were greatly assisted by the contemporary
artists and craftsmen with whom they collaborated: Chippendale made furniture
to their designs, Angelica Kauffmann painted ceilings in their houses,
and Italian artists such as Pergolesi designed sculptured decoration.
Conversely, Hepplewhite, the successor to Chippendale, and Sheraton, who
were pioneers of the lighter kind of furniture in use at the end of the
century, adapted many of their ideas from Robert Adam. The staircase illustrated,
though not actually by Adam, is typical of the elegant staircases of the
period, which economized space in the compact new town houses.
|c. 1777||Stowe, Buckinghamshire. Robert Adam, architect|
|Tyringham, Buckinghamshire. Sir John Soane, architect. The gateway|
A famous Adam country house
(upper picture), with the characteristic horizontal skyline and central
pedimented portico. Sir John Soane's work (lower picture), in contrast
both to the freely modelled decoration of Adam and to Nash's perfunctory
use of classical motifs, shows his greater interest in the fundamentals
of architecture. Though he was a classicist of the most scholarly kind,
his scientific attitude and his handling of simple masses, as at Tyringham,
makes him regarded as a forerunner of the moderns. Tyringham was provided
with a system of steam heating.
|c. 1780||No. 13 Devonshire Place, London|
The end of the eighteenth
century was a period in which London expanded with great rapidity, and
the new streets, squares and terraces were built in the simple Georgian
style of which the picture above is very typical. The house is built of
London stock bricks of the familiar greyish-yellow colour, with the bottom
storey faced with stucco, engraved with lines in imitation of stone jointing.
The windows of this time have flat arches of rubbed brick instead of segmental
arches, and very thin glazing bars. The only ornament, besides the "pateræ"
over the windows, consists in the decorated fanlight over the door and
the geometrical design of area and balcony railings in wrought iron. The
plan of the typical London house was almost completely standardized, consisting
of one front and one back room, alongside a narrow staircase hall, on
|c. 1790||A house and shop at Witham, Essex|
In the country towns the
same tradition of simple building according to local variation of material,
with classical enrichments adapted by the builder from standard pattern-books,
produced the terraces of small tradesmen's houses with their decorated
doorways and the shops with elegant bow fronts. This example has the favourite
late eighteenth-century feature of flat bay windows on the upper floors.
A simple coping at the top has replaced cornice and parapet and the entablatures
over the windows have become extremely thin. The ground floor shows how
the country builders strove to fall in with fashions from the town: the
glazing bars of the door show the influence of the Gothic Revival, and
the fanlights above are in the "Chinese taste" then fashionable.
|c. 1790||The White House, Chipping Ongar, Essex|
|Berkley Place, Cheltenham: a balcony|
The very late eighteenth-century
front, with its elegant porch, shows windows with slightly projecting
surrounds very flatly detailed, so that the glass is almost on the same
face as the wall itself. Verandah balconies with delicate wrought-iron
balustrades, sometimes in elaborate designs, are characteristic of this
|c. 1820||Houses on Strand, Dawlish, Devon|
|A villa plan of the early nineteenth century|
The early nineteenth-century
or "Regency" period saw the terrace house reach its greatest
simplicity. The whole house was now stuccoed and painted; cornices had
been replaced by plain projecting bands; cast iron was replacing wrought
iron. The window awnings in this example are a little later in date than
the rest of the house. The villa plan illustrated was the prevailing type
from the beginning of the nineteenth century for over fifty years.
|1811||A group of cottages at Blaize Castle, near Bristol. John Nash, architect|
Alongside the continuation
of the classical revival (by this time under Greek influence as a result
of the researches into Greek antiquities by contemporary scholars) was
a growing romantic tendency, aspiring to freedom from academic rules.
It had shown itself earlier in the interest in Gothic (Strawberry Hill
was built by Horace Walpole in 1750) and in oriental forms, but the earliest
phase of the Gothic revival consisted largely in the introduction of Gothic
mannerisms into structures that remained classical in form. By the beginning
of the nineteenth century interest was in the picturesque, and was allied
to the new taste in landscape gardening. The romantic cottage, built on
some estates for ornament as well as use, was a favourite conceit.
|1827||Gloucester Terrace, Regent's Park, London. John Nash, architect|
John Nash was appointed by
King George IV to carry out his great London improvements, which included
Carlton House Terrace, Regent Street (now rebuilt), Park Crescent and
Park Square, and the terraces that surround Regent's Park. Nash built
almost exclusively in his favourite stucco. His greatest merits were his
organizing ability, his vision as a town-planner and his ability to vary
the individual designs in his streets without disturbing the broad effect
of unity. His use of classical detail has been ridiculed as unscholarly,
and is often clumsy, but his invention was remarkable and its effect in
the bold façades, for example, of the Regent's Park terraces is
noble. Their defect, one characteristic of their period, is that they
are designed only as magnificent façades, their service quarters
at the back being sordid and unconsidered. Their interiors, however, are
commodious and well proportioned.
|c. 1828||Houses in Lloyd Square, Islington, London|
|White Rock, Hastings|
The unity of the street continued
to be well preserved in all classes of urban speculative development up
to the second half of the century, when the preference for picturesqueness
produced the garden suburb type of individualistic development. A fine
quality of design was also maintained in the simpler streets, notably
in the lay-out of the great speculative estates. This type of building,
as distinct from the work of the architects, continued the rational tradition
of the Regency. The top example shows good use of London stock brick as
an alternative to the prevalent stucco. There was, however, an increasing
tendency towards coarseness of detail and clumsiness of proportion.
|1837||Scarisbrick Hall, Ormskirk, Lancashire. Augustus W. N. Pugin, architect|
The Victorian period was
one of many revivals of past styles, which followed the fashion for research
into the antique and was accompanied by a general decline in standards
of taste as a result of the break-up of the old order of society in the
new industrial age. The interest of the architects after the death of
Soane was towards the picturesque, so that, although the "battle
of the styles" between Gothic and Classical was very bitter, each
school showed the same preference for broken outlines instead of simple
masses. The Gothic style was partly inspired by the literary fashion set
by Sir Walter Scott, but chiefly by the religious movement for "christianizing"
the architecture of churches. Augustus Pugin, who was this school's chief
exponent and propagandist, published an influential book, Contrasts,
advocating a return to structural design as distinct from the design of
façades. He designed the elaborate Gothic composition illustrated.
Though its exterior is effective, its interior is inconveniently planned
and poorly lighted. Pugin also designed the Gothic detail of the Houses
|1848-57||Dorchester House, Park Lane, London (now demolished). Lewis Vulliamy, architect|
The rival to the Gothic style,
illustrated opposite, was no longer the Greek or Roman Classic, the study
of which had occupied architects' minds since the time of Robert Adam,
but was a Roman Renaissance style introduced by Sir Charles Barry, displaying
a rich solidity in contrast to the simpler elegance of the Greek. Dorchester
House was the last of the great London town mansions. Its design was an
adaptation of the Palazzo Farnesina at Rome, by Peruzzi, and its interior
was notable for its decorations by Alfred Stevens.
|1858-62||Minley Manor, Hampshire. H. Clutton, architect|
The second phase of the Gothic
revival was largely inspired by the writings of John Ruskin. It derived
its details from foreign styles, notably from mediæval Italian architecture,
which was eulogized by Ruskin in his book Stones of Venice. Architects
delighted in mixtures of many materials, and originated such forms of
ornament as the red and yellow striped brickwork and the tiled or metal
roof crestings that survived for some years among suburban builders. An
alternative Gothic style was that of French mediæval architecture,
which was made fashionable by the writings of Viollet-le-Duc. Minley Manor
is based on the style of a French château of the time of
Louis Xl. The Gothic styles of this period were just as much a foreign
importation as the Classical, contrasting with the English mediæval
revival of the period of Pugin (page 54 [see 1837 Scarisbrick
A typical mid-Victorian house plan
Cheap transport encouraged
the complete breakdown of the old tradition of regional building in local
materials. The plan illustrated is of a typical small private house of
this period, showing the thick walls, dark passages, and numerous badly-shaped
rooms. It can be contrasted with the plan on page 50 [see
1823, above], in which the disposition was both efficient and capable
of simple standardization and the window space was as large as the construction
methods allowed. The multiplication of rooms in the smaller house is another
sign of middle-class aspiration towards the elaborate accommodation of
the grand mansion.
|1876||Cambridge Gate, Regent's Park. William Archer, architect|
Though at this time the Venetian
or French Gothic was accepted by the majority as the proper domestic style,
a Classical style still flourished in the towns, particularly in the terraces
of speculative houses designed largely in the offices of the big firms
of builders who were responsible for them. In such terraces is seen the
last survival of the conception of the street as a unity, which Victorian
individualism was rapidly breaking up- The prevalent style was an ornate
version of French Renaissance of the Second Empire, making a feature of
the high-pitched roofs. Compare the Regent's Park terrace illustrated
with that on page 52 [see 1827 Gloucester Terrace, above],
which almost adjoins it.
|1867||House in Haverstock Hill, London|
|Street in Belsize Park, London|
The smaller house of the
mid-Victorian period (see the plan on page 56 [see 1858-62,
above]) indicates the individualist tendency that preferred the
detached house in imitation of the country manor to the handsome squares
and terraces of a century — or even half
a century — earlier. Where the continuity
of the street remained, the façade was broken up by tiers of bay
windows of the favourite angular shape. Materials were a hard grey or
red brick, with trimmings of stucco in Gothic or Renaissance style, and
high-pitched ornamental roofs. Plate glass is used in the windows in large
panes which, though justifiable on practical grounds, combine badly with
the diminutive scale and the stylistic detail of the rest of the house.
|c. 1860||The Prince Consort's Writing Room, Buckingham Palace, London|
The interiors of the mid-Victorian
period well show the debased taste of a commercialized age, a symptom
of which was a fear of plain surfaces. The walls are covered with a boldly
patterned paper, and this, in its turn, is covered with pictures of assorted
sizes; the table-cloth, carpet and even the chair covers are patterned
as well, and woodwork, fireplace and gasolier are richly ornamental. Besides
this multiplication of decoration, the chief characteristic is solidity
of workmanship, often misapplied to the imitation of one material by another.
This was the age of comfort and horsehair stuffing, of the grainer and
of the decorative papier-mâché furniture of the Great Exhibition.
|1859||The Red House, Bexley Heath, Kent. Designed for William Morris by Philip Webb|
Reaction from the ornateness
and stuffiness of the last Gothic and Renaissance phases, and from the
arbitrary employment of imported styles, was inevitable; but in the middle
of the century the only voice of protest was that of the great reformer
William Morris. The house illustrated above was built for Morris by Philip
Webb and probably reflects the ideas of its owner as much as those of
its architect. Though it no longer appears revolutionary in style to eyes
familiar with the later houses it influenced, it did in fact represent
as complete a revolution in English house design as Inigo ]ones's "Queen's
House" at Greenwich of 1618 (page 30 [see 1618-35,
above]), though, of course, of a reverse order: instead of Anglicizing
an alien mode it initiated a return to the English rural tradition, and
to craftsmanship in native materials as the source of style instead of
the Venetian Gothic or grandiose French Renaissance then fashionable.
There was no bathroom in the Red House.
|1870||"Cragside," Northumberland. R. Norman Shaw, architect|
|House in Queen's Gate, London. R. Norman Shaw, architect|
Following the pioneer work
of William Morris, Norman Shaw built a number of country houses that returned
to the tradition of the English manor-house. These were picturesque in
conception and rambling in plan, and employed a great variety of materials,
but always according to the traditional rustic usage that was now being
appreciated anew. Compare the top picture with Compton Wynyates (page
20 [see 1525, above]). Norman Shaw was the chief
originator of the style known as "Queen Anne" (a misnomer, as
much of its inspiration was taken from Jacobean and Stuart buildings:
the house in the lower picture belongs to its later Renaissance phase).
|c. 1880||Cadogan Square, London|
The influence of Norman Shaw,
and of his school of design on free romantic lines, is seen at its worst
in the prosperous town houses of the 'eighties. Their repetition of variegated
gables along the street and their numerous projecting porches and bay
windows produce a restless vertical emphasis. Flemish and Jacobean motifs
were largely used in the design, which was elaborately carried out in
moulded brickwork. Terra-cotta was also a favourite material, cast in
large blocks to form ready-ornamented window-heads, porches and balustrades.
|1899||"The Orchard," Chorley Wood. C. F. A. Voysey, architect. The exterior and the dining room|
A more drastic return to
the English country tradition was staged by C. F. A. Voysey and C. R.
Mackintosh, who relied for their effects on simplicity of composition
and good craftsmanship in local materials. The influence of their outlook,
a less romantic one than Norman Shaw's, was restricted in England, but
was strong on the Continent, where it formed the basis of many arts and
crafts movements. Voysey's interiors were puritanically plain. He himself,
like William Morris, designed furniture, and his simple new style had
a revolutionary influence. Compare the interior above with that on page
59 [see 1860 The Prince Consort's Writing Room, above].
|1900||The Deanery, Sonning. Sir Edwin Lutyens, architect|
About the turn of the century
Edwin (now Sir Edwin) Lutyens, in a prolific period of country-house building,
developed the Norman Shaw rustic style into a personal one of his own.
His houses, romantic and picturesque as compositions, were free rustic
adaptations first of Tudor and later of Renaissance styles —
free in contrast to the scholarly stylistic exercise shown, for example,
on page 54 [see 1837 Scarisbrick Hall, above].
He showed great imagination in the use of local materials and designed
his houses carefully in relation to their gardens. A great architectural
achievement which Shaw and Lutyens were jointly responsible for was the
introduction of the "open plan." The plan reproduced, in which
nearly every room has light from two or three sides, can be contrasted
with that on page 56, though it is still traditional in that it relies
on solid wall construction.
|c. 1908||Gate House, Shackleford Common, Godalming. Hubbard and Moore, architects|
|A typical new housing estate|
The villa type of detached
house, which became known abroad as the English style, developed from
the later Victorian romanticism by way of Bedford Park, the garden suburb
designed by Norman Shaw in 1877-1880. Under the same influence numerous
small houses were built in modified Tudor styles, particularly in the
Home Counties. Real originality was shown by such architects as Ernest
Newton, Dunbar Smith, Baillie-Scott and Guy Dawber. But the influence
of these and of Bedford Park is seen at its worst in the caricatured Tudor
styles of the ordinary speculative suburban villa (lower picture), which
persist to-day as the legacy of the romantic movement of the end of the
|1927||House at Welwyn Garden City. C. H. James, architect|
After the Great War a new
Georgian revival succeeded the Tudor style of the generation before. It
is notable for greater simplicity, aiming at charm and dignity instead
of at picturesqueness. The Georgian framework being essentially rational
and a logical form for the small house, the period character lies only
in the manner of the details and in the proportions. The small house no
longer apes the form of the house of grander scale. The example illustrated
is from Welwyn, which is also typical of the domestic town planning of
the twentieth century. The spread-out garden suburb type of development,
which showed itself first in Norman Shaw's Bedford Park already mentioned,
came as a reaction from the closely packed horrors the Victorians had
made of their towns, but resulted in the loss of the compact unity of
the eighteenth-century street.
|1937||House near Kingston, Surrey. E. Maxwell Fry, architect|
After about 1930 England
slowly began to allow herself to be influenced by the architectural revolution
that was taking place on the Continent, abandoning period styles and searching
for an architecture attuned to modern life and its scientific basis; particularly
one that would take more advantage of modern methods of construction and
equipment and the mass production of building parts. Although it evolved
abroad, the modern movement was based on study of the rationalized English
house of a century ago and on the pioneer work of Voysey and his contemporaries,
who had re-established the idea of a non-stylistic architecture. The introduction
of steel and concrete construction has eliminated the necessity of continuous
weight-bearing walls, so that the provision of large continuous windows
is possible together with the free planning of spaces. This type of planning
of course demands a flat roof. The large windows are made practicable
by improved methods of heating. New materials, such as painted concrete,
have been experimentally used on the exteriors, but, though they follow
the successful precedent of the Regency stucco, they have not yet shown
themselves suited to the English climate. The white walls that these materials
produce, though often associated with the modern movement, are, of course,
not an integral part of it. What is characteristic in this example is
its lightness and elegance, which contrasts with the solidity of the house
of the handicraft periods. The modern movement, in its first purist phase,
has shown itself in the design of a number of isolated private houses
in town and country. The street has not yet put in a new appearance.
For those who want to study further the subject that has been very briefly summarized in the preceding pages the following is a list of the principal books available, in addition to Nathaniel Lloyd's History of the English House (Architectural Press, 1931) on which the first portion of this book is based. The books are arranged alphabetically according to authors' names after classification under three general headings.
Bayne-Powell, Rosamund. English Country Life in the Eighteenth Century and Eighteenth-Century London Life (John Murray, 1935 and 1937).
Benson, Edwin. Life in a Mediæval City, Illustrated by York in the Fifteenth Century (S.P.C.K., 1920).
Chancellor, E. Beresford. The Eighteenth Century in London: Its Social Life and Arts and Life in Regency and Early Victorian Times (Batsford, 1933).
Coulton, C. G. Social Life in Britain and The Mediæval Village (Cambridge University Press, 1921 and 1925).
Finch, W. C. Life in Rural England (Batsford, 1928).
George, M. Dorothy. England in Transition (Routledge, 1931).
Hartley, Dorothy, and Elliot, Margaret M. Life and Work of the People of England. Two volumes (Batsford, 1931).
Hussey, Christopher. The Picturesque (Putnam, 1927).
Lethaby, W. R. Form in Civilization (Oxford University Press, 1927).
Mumford, Lewis. Technics and Civilization (Routledge, 1934) and The Culture of Cities (New York, 1938).
Quennell, Marjorie and C. H. B. A History of Everyday Things in England. Four volumes: Vols. 1 and 2, 1066-1799; Vol. 3, 1733-1851; Vol. 4, 1851-1934 (Batsford, 1930-34).
Richardson, A. E. Georgian England (Batsford, 1931).
Salzman, L. F. England in Tudor Times (Batsford, 1926).
Steegmann, John. The Rule of Taste from George I to George IV (Macmillan, 1937).
Trevelyan, G. M. A History of England. Three volumes (Longmans, 1926).
Williams, Ellis A., and Fisher, F. J. A History of English Life, Political and Social (Methuen, 1936).
Young, G. M. (edited by). Early Victorian England. Two volumes (Oxford University Press, 193/L).
Andrews, Francis B. The Mediæval Builder and His Methods (Oxford University Press, 1925).
Bauer, Catherine. Modern Housing (New York, 1934).
Belcher, John, and Macartney, Mervyn. Later Renaissance Architecture in England. Two volumes (Batsford, 1901).
Bertram, Anthony. The House a Machine for Living (Black, 1935).
Betjeman, John. Ghastly Good Taste (Chapman and Hall, 1933).
Blomfield, R. E. A Short History of Renaissance Architecture in England (Bell, 1914).
Bolton, Arthur T. The Work of Sir John Soane (Country Life, 1924).
Briggs, M. S. A Short History of the Building Crafts (Oxford University Press, 1925).
Clark, Kennfith. The Gothic Revival (Constable, 1928).
Cotchett, Lucretia Eddy. The Evolution of Furniture (Batsford, 1938).
Eastlake, C. L. History of the Gothic Revival (Longmans, Green and Co., 1872).
Ellwood, G. M. English Furniture and Decoration, 1680-1800 (Batsford, 1933).
Gibberd, Frederick. The Architecture of England from Norman Times to the Present Day (Architectural Press, 1938).
Godfrey, Walter H. The Story of Architecture in England (Batsford, 1931).
Gotch, J. A. Architecture of the Renaissance in England. Two Volumes (Batsford, 1894); Early Renaissance Architecture in England (Batsford, 1901); Inigo Jones (Methuen, 1928).
Howard, Ebenezer. Garden Cities of Tomorrow (Sonnenschein, first published as Tomorrow in 1898, 1902).
Innocent, C. F. The Development of English Building Construction (Cambridge, 1916).
Jourdain, M. English Interiors in Smaller Houses, from the Restoration to the Regency: 1660-1830 (Batsford, 1923).
Lancaster, Osbert. Pillar to Post: the Pocket Lamp of Architecture (John Murray, 1938).
Lenygon, F., and Jourdain, M. English Decoration and Furniture from Tudor Times to the Nineteenth Century. Four volumes: Early Renaissance, 1500-1650; Stuart and Georgian Decoration, 1660-1770; Stuart and Georgian Furniture, 1660-1770; Later Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Century, 1750-1820 (Batsford, 1914-24).
Lethaby, W. R. Philip Webb and His Work (Oxford University Press, 1935).
Lloyd, Nathaniel. A History of English Brickwork (H. G. Montgomery, new edition, 1935).
Mackail, J. W. Life of William Morris (Longmans, 1922).
Pevsner, Nikolaus. Pioneers of the Modern Movement (Faber and Faber, 1936).
Richardson, A. E., and Gill, C. Regional Architecture of the West of England (Benn, 1924).
Sharp, Thomas. Town and Countryside (Oxford University Press, 1937).
Stratton, Arthur. The English Interior (Batsford, 1920).
Summerson, John. John Nash: Architect to King George IV (Allen and Unwin, 1935).
Trappes-Lomax, M. Pugin (Sheed and Ward, 1932).
Weaver, Lawrence. Sir Christopher Wren (Country Life, 1923).
Webb, Geoffrey. Wren (Duckworth, 1937).
Addy, S. O. (revised and enlarged by John Summerson). The Evolution of the English House (Allen and Unwin, 1933).
Batsford, Harry and Fry, Charles. The English Cottage (Batsford, 1938).
Bemis, A. F. The Evolving House. Three volumes (Cambridge, U.S.A., 1933-36).
Boumphrey, Geoffrey. Your House and Mine (Allen and Unwin, 1938).
Gotch, J. A. The Growth of the English House (Batsford, 1928, second edition).
Helm, W. H. Homes of the Past: A Sketch of Domestic Building and Life in England from the Norman to the Georgian Age (New York, 1921).
Jones, Sydney R. English Village Homes (Batsford, 1936).
Oliver, Basil. The Cottages of England (Batsford, 1929).
Powys, A. R. The English House (Benn, 1929).
Tipping, H. Avray. English Homes. Nine volumes (Country Life, 1921).
Braun, H. The English Castle (Batsford, 1936).
Parker and Turner. Domestic Architecture of the Middle Ages (Batsford, 1853).
Thompson, A. Hamilton. Military Architecture in England during the Middle Ages (Frowde, 1912).
Bolton, Arthur T. The Architecture of Robert and James Adam. Two volumes (Country Life, 1922).
Field and Bunney. English Domestic Architecture of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Batsford, 1928).
Garner and Stratton. The Domestic Architecture of England during the Tudor Period. Two volumes (Batsford, 1929, new edition).
Gotch, J. A. The English Home from Charles I to George IV (Batsford, 1919).
Green, Mowbray A. The Eighteenth-Century Architecture of Bath (Gregory, 1904).
Ramsey, S. C. Small Houses of the Late Georgian Period. Two volumes (Architectural Press, 1919).
Richardson and Eberlein. The Smaller English House of the Later Renaissance (Batsford, 1925).
McGrath, Raymond. Twentieth-Century Houses (Faber and Faber, 1924).
Muthesius, von Hermann. Das Englische Haus (Wasmuth, Berlin, 1904-5).
Weaver, Lawrence. Lutyens Houses and Gardens (Country Life, 1921).
Yorke, F. R. S. The Modern House in England (Architectural Press, 1937).
A Selection of BOOKS on
A HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH HOUSE: FROM PRIMITIVE TIMES TO THE VICTORIAN PERIOD. By the late NATHANIEL LLOYD, O.B.E., F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. This is the most authoritative and most exhaustively illustrated history of the English House which has ever been published — a magnificent record in text, photographs, drawings and plans of dwelling-house development in England and all its details from the earliest times until the middle of the 19th century. Containing nearly 900 illustrations of Plans and Elevations, Entrances, Windows, Chimneys, Interiors, Ceilings, Wall Treatment, Fireplaces, Stairs, Metalwork, etc. The volume contains over 500 pages in aIl, size 12½ ins. by 9 ins., and is attractively bound in cloth. £3 3s., postage 1/- inland.
ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE AT A GLANCE. With historical notes by FREDERICK CHATTERTON, F.R.I.B.A., and over 90 pen-and-ink sketches by J. D. M. HARVEY, B.A. The book provides a delightful and simple way for the uninitiated to become acquainted with the different styles of architecture represented in England. Fourth edition. 1/6, postage 3d. inland.
ENGLISH FURNITURE AT A GLANCE. By CHARLES HAYWARD. An elementary study written specially for the amateur and containing all the necessary information for the identification of furniture belonging to the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Over 100 drawings by the author. 3/6, postage 3d. inland.
ENGLISH ROOMS AND THEIR DECORATION AT A GLANCE. By CHARLES HAYWARD. A simple review in pictures of the changes in the design of rooms and their decorative details from 1066 to 1800. In two volumes. Vol. I., 1066-1620; Vol. II., 1621-1800. Over 100 drawings by the author in each volume. 3/6 each volume, postage 3d. inland.
SAILING SHIPS AT A GLANCE. By E. W. HOBBS, A.I.N.A., with an introduction by L. G. CARR LAUGHTON. The story of the sailing ship from the earliest times to the present day. Over 150 drawings by the author. 3/6, postage 4d. inland.
SMALL HOUSES, £500-£2,500. Edited by H. MYLES WRIGHT, M.A., A.R.I.B.A. A collection of seventy-five small houses designed by architects and recently built in this country. Each house is illustrated by exterior views and plans, and a number of interior views are also included. The special features of the site and plan of each house are described, and particulars given of construction, finishes, services and building cost. The majority of the houses illustrated cost well under £2,000. There is also an introduction by the Editor, illustrated with drawings by G. BRIAN HERBERT, A.R.I.B.A. Consisting of 112 pages printed on art paper, and containing 150 half-tone illustrations and 130 plans. Size 11 ins. by 8½ ins., cloth bound. Second impression. 7/ 6.
THE MODERN HOUSE. By F. R. S. YORKE, A.R.I.B.A. The modern architect designs houses that are intended primarily for living in. He does not allow a preconceived idea of the appearance of the façade to interfere with the efficiency of the plan. New materials are at his disposal and he employs new methods of construction. This book outlines the requirements to be met with in the new type of home, and discusses at length its several parts. Sections in the book deal with the Plan, Walls and Windows, the Roof, Experimental Houses, and General Illustrations. This last section contains about 150 pages of photographs, plans, constructional details and technical descriptions of English, American and Continental houses. Third edition, revised and enlarged. Containing, in addition to text, over 530 illustrations. Attractively bound in cloth. Size 10 ins. by 7½ ins. 21/-, postage 6d. inland.
THE MODERN HOUSE IN ENGLAND. By F. R. S. YORKE, A.R.I.B.A. The book opens with an illustrated Introduction in which is described the developments in design and construction of houses from 1908 to the present day. Then follows a series of examples of the recent domestic work carried out by well-known architects, the illustrations being arranged in groups under the materials of which they are built — namely, brick, frame, and concrete. 144 pages, with 350 photographs, plans and drawings. Cloth bound, 15/ -, postage 6d. inland.
THE MODERN FLAT. By F. R. S. YORKE, A.R.I.B.A., and FREDERICK GIBBERD, A.I.A.A. The most comprehensive survey of modern flat buildings in Europe and America yet published. Following 32 pages of fully illustrated Introduction, are 168 pages and exterior and interior views, scale plans, details, diagrams and tabular information about blocks of flats built in recent years by well-known architects in Great Britain and abroad. Size 8¾ ins. by 11¾ ins. 30/-, postage 7d. inland.
THE PRINCIPLES OF ARCHITECTURAL COMPOSITION. By HOWARD ROBERTSON, F.R.I.B.A., S.A.D.G. A study of the Theory of Architectural Design written for students, practising architects and the lay public. 180 pages, with over 160 drawings by the author. 10/6, postage 6d. inland.
MODERN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN. By HOWARD ROBERTSON, F.R.I.B.A., S.A.D.G. Forming a companion volume to the author's "Principles of Architectural Composition," but in this case treating in detail aspects of design more especially from the standpoint of the Modern Movement. The book presents a sane and stimulating analysis of many of the current problems in design which are encountered by the practising architect and student. 240 pages with over 100 line drawings and photographs of some of the most interesting modern buildings in Europe and America. Cloth bound, 15/-, postage 6d. inland.
A complete catalogue of publications will be sent on request [written in 1938] to the publishers: the address is 9, Queen Anne's Gate, S.W.1.