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Welwyn Garden City


A Miniature History of the English House

Author:   J. M. Richards

Published: 1938 (first edition, second impression) by The Architectural Press

Format: Hardback 9" by 6" with 172 pages
 


  Cover









Title page
  

Hylands, near Chelmsford, engraved by J. Wallis after a drawing by J. P. Neale and published in 1819.

(click image to enlarge)

  


This book is illustrated with 76 black and white photographs and 10 plans of houses through the ages, arranged nearly chronologically, the earliest being a priest's cell at Dingle, Ireland dated 700 AD, and the most recent being an a house with a flat roof near Kingston, Surrey, architect E. Maxwell Fry, dated 1937. With each picture comes a paragraph of text. The author explains at the beginning that most of the pictures are taken from Nathaniel Lloyd's "History of the English House". The penultimate picture is of a house at Welwyn Garden City of 1927, architect C. H. James.
 

     
 
FOREWORD
 
     
 

It should be said right away that most of the illustrations in this book are taken from the late Nathaniel Lloyd's "History of the English House." That, as the standard work on the subject, is not likely to be superseded. Its comprehensiveness, however, and the intensive scholarship its late author brought to its compilation, necessitated a format which militates to some degree against its convenient use as a handbook; and it was the suggestion of the publishers that the immense amount of material contained in the book might be drawn upon for the purpose of making a very much smaller and greatly simplified version which might have its own more popular usefulness.

This book consists therefore of a selected series of illustrations, largely taken from the aforementioned work, to which some brief notes are added to help them tell the history of English domestic architecture. For the chapter and verse that give the history its authority the reader must, of course, refer back to Nathaniel Lloyd.

In one respect the ground covered is a little different from that covered in Nathaniel Lloyd's history: the present work has been continued up to date. The parent work finished with the end of the Regency period, except for a few Early Victorian examples which were included to indicate the trend of the nineteenth century. The author was quite right not to go further, for a definitive history cannot be written until sufficient time has elapsed to allow the subject to fall into its proper perspective. In the case of a simple handbook, however, that is concerned as much with the facts of history as with their causes and significance, to link the past with the present day by emphasizing that which is still within the period of our own memories is one way of making the distant past more real. The most recent history has in any case the greatest importance as it is out of it that our present usage is in process of evolving. Accordingly, equivalent illustrations have been added to those borrowed from Nathaniel Lloyd to cover the nineteenth century and the first third of the twentieth.

A word should be said about the purpose of this book. A handbook about architecture in such a simple form serves chiefly as an aid to the identification and dating of examples, but the obvious danger of such simplification is that it easily degenerates into a formula. There is little virtue in being able to say: "thin window-bars — that means late Georgian," or "cast-iron balconies — early Victorian." Such guide-book labels need to be given vitality by an understanding of their meaning. In the notes that form the text of this book a definite attempt has been made, while still giving the essential information about the characteristic details of each period, to explain the evolution of the English house not as a series of unaccountable changes in design, but as a series of effects traceable to comprehensible human causes, whether of the nature of changes in habits of living, in fashions of taste, in available materials or in building technique.

In regarding architecture thus as a material manifestation of social life, the documentary value of the continuous tradition seen in the English house can be fully appreciated.

Finally, it should hardly be necessary to say that this little book could not have been compiled without the kind permission of the Trustees of the late Nathaniel Lloyd to use his work as a quarry of illustrations and information.

J. M. R.

 
     

 

     
  c. 700 A priest's cell at Dingle, Ireland  
 
 
 

An illustrated history of English domestic architecture cannot easily go back earlier than 1066, because few examples of pre-Norman houses survive. The houses of the Romans disappeared soon after they retired from the country, and left no influence behind them. The Saxon period, though achieving occasional permanence in its churches (often through the re-use of Roman materials), leaves practically no domestic remains, as houses were primitive and built of impermanent materials: timber, thatch and "Wattle and daub"that is, mud reinforced with reeds and sticks. A few, like this one in Ireland, were built of stone. In this case, although the material is exceptional, the shape is much less so, as it is not based on the logic of stone construction but on the building tradition of the turf hut. The alternative method of construction was an arrangement of timbers, from which the mediæval half-timber work descended.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1130 The Keep of Rochester Castle  
 
 
 

Although the introduction of stone for regular building purposes by the Normans begins the period when examples of domestic architecture survive, these examples are by no means typical dwellings of the people. Stone was introduced for purposes of fortification. The political organization of the time demanded a secure nucleus round which each local feudal unit could gather itself; and the typical surviving Norman building, excluding ecclesiastical buildings, is therefore the castle, which combined the functions of a dwelling-place for a lord and his retainers with that of a fortress. For many years following the Conquest it had to be strong enough to resist attacks by any rebellion of Saxons. The peasant's dwelling meanwhile remained the primitive hut of wattle and daub or rough timber with thatched roof.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1180 The Manor House, Boothby Pagnel, near Grantham  
 
 
 

This is one of the few remaining secular buildings of the twelfth century other than a fortress. It is a country manor-house, built of stone. As with most dwellings of this period of any pretensions at all, the principal room (with fireplace) is on the upper floor, reached by an external stair; a defensive Norman-French custom which superseded the Saxon one of ground-floor habitation. In Scotland this custom, including the construction of external stair-cases, persisted as late as the eighteenth century. The four-light window in the centre of the long wall is a fifteenth century addition, but note elsewhere the similarity of the detail to that of Norman or Transitional churches. There was no separate style of building for ecclesiastical purposes.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1190 Bamburgh Castle, Northumberland  
 
 
 

In the late Norman period the great stone fortress reached the climax of its development. It was in effect a town in itself, centring round the keep but completely self-contained within its bastioned Walls. Besides the feudal baron or commander whose seat it was, and who lived in the keep, the whole local population who were his retainers, except the peasants, lived within its walls, and even the latter retreated there in times of danger. Being primarily a fortress its arrangement on the site was dictated by necessities of defence, and its architectural characteristics were tremendously thick walls, small windows and short spans, the former for comfort and defence and the latter the result of restricted experience of the possibilities of stone construction.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1240 and 1291 Stokesay Castle, Shropshire. View from the south-west and plan  
 
 
 
 
 

The next stage is the fortified manor-house. Architecture began to be less exclusively military, and to provide primitive comforts such as sanitation, fireplaces and glass in the windows. The rectangular portion of Stokesay (see plan) is a typical early mediæval house, a tower and walls being also provided in this case because of its situation on the lawless Welsh marches. The timber upper storey of the north tower is an addition of the seventeenth century.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1260-1280 Little Wenham Hall, Suffolk  
 
 
 

The typical mediæval house is by this time a dwelling in form rather than simply a habitable castle keep. In the case of Little Wenham Hall, a knight's mansion of the thirteenth century, the main rooms are still on an upper floor. The tower contains a chapel with a chamber above. There was probably an outside staircase in the same position as the later wooden one shown in the picture. The house is built of brick, here reintroduced into English architecture for the first time since the Romans.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1341 Penshurst Place, Kent. The north entrance to the Great Hall and the plan  
 
 
 
 
 

The plan, as at Penshurst, centres round the great hall, which was the common living-room for the whole population of the house and the sleeping-place of all but the lord and his lady. For their use Penshurst provides a chamber leading off the dais of the hall, with a "solar" or bed-sitting-room above. This design again shows the same features, including windows with decorated tracery, as churches of the same date. A significant fact about Penshurst Place is that it was built by a London merchant, Sir John de Poulteney, which indicates the increasing prosperity of the burgher class. Their prosperity came with the greater security of property and their comparative freedom from the domination of feudal landlords and soldiers.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1350 The Fish Tower, Meare, Somerset  
 
 
 

Meanwhile the peasants away from the towns all others still lived within the fortifications of the great house dwelt in houses not greatly different from those of their ancestors, and of almost equally impermanent materials, so that few examples survive. It must be repeated that the examples we have been illustrating are the great houses of the kingdom, or the collective dwelling-places of the feudal groups. Architecturally the ordinary individual has not yet come on the scene. However, on this and the facing page are two fourteenth-century houses of somewhat less pretentious kind. That at Meare, in Somerset, a country example, is of a simplicity of design more characteristic of an earlier century, though the end of the building not shown in the photograph contains a window with flowing tracery. The principal room was on the first floor, the ground floor being divided into a kitchen and two small rooms. Access to the first floor was by an outside staircase leading to the round-arched doorway in the centre.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1400 Grevel House, Chipping Campden  
 
 
 

Although town houses of the smaller kind began at an earlier period than country dwellings to be constructed in more permanent materials (particularly after a great fire in London in 1135, that almost destroyed the largely wooden town), early examples are rare because of the constant replacement that is characteristic of town economy. The small though comparatively solid town house of this period is another indication of the growth of a merchant middle class. The centre window is an addition of the seventeenth century.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1480 Cothay Manor, Wellington, Somerset. East front and ground floor plan  
 
 
 
 
 

The fifteenth century saw a rapid development of the manor-house, following the break up of the centralized feudal authority. Cothay Manor is quite typical in plan, but is also directly linked with the mediæval plan already observed, retaining the great hall in which most of the life was lived. Though the large windows on the ground floor show that defence was no longer a first consideration (also that glass was now less of a rarity), the fortified plan persists in the placing of the house within a courtyard entered by a gate-house.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1490 Synyards, Otham, Kent  
 
 
 

Synyards, another hall house, shows by contrast with Cothay Manor the differences that local materials and craftsmanship were bringing to architectural style. Somerset is a stone county and its building style was closely allied to that of the builders of earlier mediæval fortifications who imported stone for its strength. In Kent, where stone was lacking, a timber style was evolved based on the tradition of the peasants' huts and barns. The timber frame was filled with wattle and plaster. Synyards had a floor inserted in the late sixteenth century to make two storeys out of the original great hall, which occupied the whole of the recessed centre portion; but the exterior remains little altered. The gable and chimneys are seventeenth century.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1500 Rufford Hall, Lancashire  
 
 
 

A hall interior of the beginning of the sixteenth century, with a late sixteenth-century fireplace (earlier there would have been a central hearth). The picture shows the upper end of the hall with a coved ceiling over the high table and a bench along the wall behind it. On the right is an opening to a bay window. The walls are of timber framing, filled in with plaster; though by this time it was usual for woven tapestry hangings or painted cloths to cover the bare plaster of earlier interiors. An alternative wall-covering fashionable in the fifteenth century was leather, stamped with decorative designs. The hall Windows were filled with heraldic stained glass. In a recess stood a "cup-board" (or sideboard) with tiers of shelves for the display of plate, and well-made oak tables and chairs had taken the place of the rough trestles and benches of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1520 The Tribunal House, Glastonbury, Somerset  
 
 
 
 
 

The Tudor period saw considerable growth of town life, and this town house from Glastonbury shows an architecture not only entirely domesticated, but taking its character from its situation on a street. It is designed as a façade, composed of the same unit repeated (the door, which breaks the symmetry of the front, occupies, as the plan shows, exactly the space of one pair of windows). The detail is characteristically Tudor: mullioned windows with four- centred arched heads, a similar head over the doorway, and an oriel window which lights the principal room on the first floor.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1525 Compton Wynyates, Warwickshire  
 
 
 
c. 1525
Cowdray House, Midhurst, Sussex. Destroyed by fire in 1793  
 
 
 
c. 1559
Moreton Old Hall, Cheshire  
 
 
 

The great country mansion of the same period as the town house just described was casually designed, with a confusion of roofs, towers and twisted brick chimneys that made houses like Compton Wynyates the model that architects returned to when picturesqueness came to be sought after see page 61 [see 1870 Cragside, below]. In the sixteenth century Compton Wynyates was encircled by a moat, and these country mansions often retained a considerable amount of military character, though more as a form of heraldic display than from necessity. Cowdray, for example, illustrates a common plan, which consists of a courtyard, into which look the principal rooms, entered by a monumental gateway. The contrast between the architecture of Cowdray and that of Moreton Old Hall, a manor-house of slightly later date, indicates again the differences that local materials and craftsmanship were responsible for. Moreton Old Hall is a fine example of the half-timber work that evolved in regions where stone was not economical to use particularly in Herefordshire and Cheshire. The timber frame, which rested on a stone base to raise it sufficiently above the ground to preserve the wood, was filled in with lathing and plaster. In other parts of the country brickwork ("brick-nogging") was used as infilling. Gable barge-boards and other details were here richly decorated, but often the only decoration was the geometrical pattern contrived from the timbers themselves.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1595 Hunts Farm, Crundale, Kent  
 
 
 

By the end of the sixteenth century ordinary building construction was sufficiently substantial for a number of more homely houses to have survived (very few so-called mediæval cottages are of an earlier date than the middle of the century). This farmhouse has the usual timber-frame construction and a characteristic Kentish moulded brick chimney. The chief differences between the construction of this period and earlier half-timber work is that large rectangular panels filled with plaster have replaced the more closely-spaced timbers of the fifteenth century. Compare this house, for example, with that shown on page 17 [see 1490 Synyards, above].
 

 
 
 
  c. 1580 Wollaton Hall, Notts. The north front and the ground plan  
 
 
 
 
 

First signs of the revolution that the more monumental architecture of England was soon to undergo. The late sixteenth century, the Elizabethan period, displays a degree of exuberance and fantasy that the popular idea of the period by no means exaggerates. Finally released from the limitations imposed by necessities of defence, and with a whole alphabet of new decorative motifs introduced by craftsmen from Renaissance Italy and from the Low Countries, design in this transitional period blossomed out into a rich panoply of display. Wollaton is a romantic pile, still Gothic in spirit but largely composed of classical units extravagantly misapplied. The plan can be seen still to retain its great hall as the nucleus of a more sophisticated sequence of galleries. The hall is lighted only through the tower windows. The ambitiously symmetrical exterior contrasts with the haphazard exterior of Compton Wynyates.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1575 Gilling Castle, Yorkshire. The Great Children  
 
 
 

The interior of the Elizabethan great house was as imposing as the exterior. Imported Continental craftsmen contributed the fashionable Italian flavour to their embellishment of what was still a Gothic background. Oak panelling succeeded the tapestry hangings of the preceding period, and was often inlaid or painted. This room has a plaster ceiling of the pendant type. Heraldry provided the motif of all ornament, including that of the stained glass in the windows, though there are already indications in this interior of the elaborate strapwork and carving of miniature classical orders characteristic of thc Jacobean period.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1607-11 Hatfield House, Hertfordshire. Robert Lyminge, architect  
 
 
 
1594
Cobham Hall, Kent. The entrance  
 
 
 

By the end of the Jacobean period the influence of the Italian Renaissance had spread beyond the ornament into the symmetrical design of the house itself. There are no gables and the roofs are hidden by pierced parapets, though the romantic spirit still demanded a skyline broken by turrets and clusters of chimneys. Exuberance especially shows itself in the porch, which was often entirely classical, though applied to a still Gothic mansion.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1635 Broome Park, Denton, Kent  
 
 
 

This house at last begins to suggest the revolution in architecture that the Renaissance represents. Hatfield (previous page), in spite of Italian influence and its symmetrical galleried plan, still harks back, say, to Cowdray, but Broome Park looks forward to the later full development of the English Renaissance. The horizontal line and classical symmetry predominate, though still beneath a romantic roof-line displaying pedimented gables and varied groups of chimneys. Each façade is separately composed, and Renaissance details are used with knowledge and appreciation of their effect and are intelligibly translated into English brickwork.

The elaborately detailed gables and dormer windows, all executed in cut and moulded brick, show the prevalent Dutch influence (it was often by way of Holland that the fashions of the Renaissance passed into England). They also illustrate the climax of skill in the craft of brickwork, a fine tradition which dates from the elaborate twisted chimneys of the Tudor period. The window frames and mullions are of painted wood. The marble doorway at Broome Park was imported direct from Italy.
 

 
 
 
  1653 Unstone Hall, Derbyshire  
 
 
 
 
 

Meanwhile the humbler house continues much closer to the tradition of preceding periods. Even the detail belongs still to the Perpendicular period of the Gothic; and detail is sparse, consisting only in label mouldings to the windows and mouldings round the characteristic groups of chimneys. Local materials determine the character of the structure: in this case thick walls of hard millstone grit and low-pitched roof of heavy grey slates. The plan is a direct descendant of the mediæval hall plan.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1680 A cottage at Little Barrington, Gloucestershire  
 
 
 

A cottage from another district where use of the local stone produced its characteristic style. In this case the roof is covered with stone slabs in diminishing sizes large at the eaves and small at the ridge. The stones were specially cut to form the swept valley at the intersection of the roofs. The small casement windows of metal set in deep stone mullions are typical and, with the rest of the house, belong to a local tradition so strong that almost identical design persisted right through the eighteenth century. Observe the relationship of the house with the characteristic dry walling of the same stone and thus with the landscape itself. Even as late as this such solid construction for peasant dwellings was not universal: primitive timber and even turf huts persisted, and chimneys were a luxury.
 

 
 
 
  1692 Crown House, Newport, Essex  
 
 
 
1702
Lower Standard Farm, Ninfield, Sussex  
 
 
 

In other parts of England there were equally strong local traditions in other materials. The top picture shows the plaster pargeting, often decorated with geometrical ornament, of East Anglia, and the lower picture shows mullioned windows and moulded chimneys used in a simple brick farmhouse. In these two cases, the date being a little later and the locality more accessible from London, the country builder had absorbed the new Renaissance mannerisms to a considerable degree, as seen in the door hood of the Essex house and in the cornice, the quoins and the design of the doorway of the Sussex farmhouse.
 

 
 
 
  1618-35 The Queen's House, Greenwich. Inigo Jones, architect  
 
 
 

Meanwhile sophisticated urban architecture had developed into a full acceptance of the Renaissance. In Elizabethan and Jacobean times foreign craftsmen had brought only the superficial ornaments of the Renaissance to England, usually by way of Holland; now architects, a newly differentiated profession, paid visits to Italy and brought back the essence of classical design itself. The Queen's house at Greenwich was designed by Inigo Jones, and was the first dwelling-house in England to be built in the full Italian manner. Inigo Jones, in his capacity of Surveyor-General to the King, designed scenery and settings for Court masques in the Italian style, and these played an important part in familiarizing the public with the new style. The drastic divergence of tendency in this period can be seen by comparing this house with Hatfield, built only ten years earlier. The Queen's House, modelled on an Italian palace, is built according to preconceived rules of design. It is no longer, like the Jacobean house, a mere modification of the mediæval house, which evolved out of building craftsmanship. It is a design imposed on the builder by a mind outside his craft.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1662 Coleshill, Berkshire. Sir Roger Pratt, architect. The principal front and ground floor plan  
 
 
 
 
 

By the middle of the seventeenth century the Renaissance was well established, and many fine mansions were designed with full mastery of thc technique of disposing the parts with proper proportion and emphasis. The lines of the exterior are now emphatically horizontal, and absolute symmetry (in plan and elevation) has taken the place of the balance of asymmetrical parts shown in the best mediæval designs. The quality of the Coleshill design consists in such things as the subtle spacing of the windows and the proportions of the roof and great chimneys. A hipped roof, instead of the gables of fifty years earlier, is a feature that English architects successfully combined with the Italian style.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1701 Mompesson House, Salisbury  
 
 
 
 
 

Throughout the second half of the seventeenth century normal building enterprise was still retarded by the effects of the Civil War and of the Plague, the Great Fire and the Revolution of 1688, but in the eighteenth century there followed a period of intensive building. Expansion of trade provided the funds, and a prosperous aristocracy provided the interest in architectural experiment, members of the aristocracy often themselves becoming amateur architects. But besides the Italian mansions of the great, an important development was that of the medium-sized residences of the upper middle classes, merchant and professional, who were now entering on their period of dominating influence in English life. These houses, whether as country villas or in provincial towns, evolved into the most perfect English product of the Renaissance. Their architects are mostly unknown, and were probably not architects at all in the new sense, but belonged instead to the earlier tradition of master-craftsmen, who were guided by the many books on classical design then in circulation. It is this type of English house that shows the influence of Sir Christopher Wren, who did not himself, so far as is known, design any houses except his royal palaces, Hampton Court, Greenwich and Marlborough House. Mompesson House, like many of the more pretentious houses, was planned with a forecourt, entered by a wrought-iron gate. In this case the whole house is of stone, but in other districts brick or a combination of brick and stone was used with equal effect. The interiors showed the same consistent taste in decoration and furnishing. They contained fine broad staircases with railings of twisted balusters, pedimented doorways and plaster ceilings robustly moulded. The walls of the staircase hall illustrated are panelled in stucco plaster, a fashion which necessitated the introduction of specialist Italian craftsmen. The commoner alternative was wood panelling, framed by a raised or "bolection" moulding.
 

 
 
 
  1699 Rampyndene, Burwash, Sussex  
 
 
 
c. 1705
No. 30 Queen Anne's Gate, formerly No. 11 Queen Square, London  
 
 
 
c. 1720
No. 14 Took's Court, London  
 
 
 

Typical country and town houses of the beginning of the eighteenth century, when the rules for mastery of the new architectural language had been disseminated among builders in all parts. The former shows the white-painted wooden cornice that had superseded the former projecting eaves, the steep pitched roof and dormer windows finished with lead flashings, and the elaborate hooded doorway. It can be seen in the picture that this house, being in a country district, retains on the upper floor the old leaded casement windows, but the lower floor has sash windows, which were introduced during the latter part of the seventeenth century and were by now in common use. The town houses show the enrichment usually concentrated on the door, leaving the plain windows to get their effect by repetition along the street, an effect which is assisted by the practice of lining the reveals of the windows with white plaster, as in the example on the right. In the other example the woodwork of the flat-headed windows is set back only one inch from the Wall surface, a tendency of this period which was stopped by an Act of Parliament of 1709 requiring all windows in London to be set back four and a half inches and to have arched heads.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1710 A house at Burford, Oxfordshire  
 
 
 
c. 1726
Sudbrooke Park, Richmond, Surrey. James Gibbs, architect  
 
 
 
1723-5
Mereworth Castle, Kent. Colen Campbell, architect  
 
 
 

The work of the architects of this period is known as Palladian, because it was based on the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio (1518-1580), who was much studied by English architects from Inigo Jones onwards. The rather severe rectangular style of this house at Burford, with its large orders the full height of the building, is typical of the smaller Palladian houses. The more pretentious Palladian mansion (Sudbrooke Park) made a feature of its stone portico and imposing flights of steps. Roofs were now hidden behind a solid or balustraded parapet. Sometimes the admiration of Palladio's designs was taken as far as the slavish imitation of his buildings. Mereworth Castle (bottom picture) is an almost exact copy of his Villa Almerico at Vicenza and was quite unsuitable for the English climate and requirements. Lord Burlington, most famous of the aristocratic amateurs, had another copy of the same Palladian villa built for him at Chiswick.
 

 
 
 
  1706-24 Blenheim Place, Oxfordshire. Sir John Vanbrugh, architect  
 
 
 
c. 1725
Finchcocks, Goudhurst, Kent  
 
 
 

An original genius was Sir John Vanbrugh whose imposing compositions, more Baroque than Palladian, partake of the character of stage scenery (he was himself also a dramatist) and are monumental rather than practical in plan. At Blenheim there is a walk of more than a hundred yards from the kitchen to the dining-room. Meanwhile the country squire, lower picture, rebuilt his mansion in the fashion that had established itself in the town, though with the simplifications and crudities brought to it by the local builder.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1734-61 Holkham Hall, Norfolk. William Kent, architect. The south front  
 
 
 

The great landowners of the eighteenth century, when a knowledge of architecture was part of every educated man's equipment, tried to outdo each other in the construction of fine palaces. They took at the same time great interest both in the growth of scientific farming and in the pictorial design of landscape. The fine park in which Holkham Hall stands was laid out by the Earl of Leicester on land reclaimed from the marshes. The house, which is on a formal symmetrical plan with a central block of state apartments designed to house the art collection brought back by its owner from Italy, is built of cream-coloured brick and stone. William Kent, the architect, was one of the first great architects to specialize also in the design of furniture.
 

 
 
 
  1749 Chesterfield House, London. Isaac Ware, architect  
 
 
 

Although the restraint imposed by the canons of taste and scholarship kept the exteriors of English houses relatively simple in design, the interiors and the furniture and fabrics more closely followed Continental tendencies towards increasing decorativeness. About 1740 the extreme French rococo style came into fashion, with its scrolls, curves and lavish use of gilt and mirrors. Wall decorations were generally of stucco, but wood panelling was not altogether discarded (panels were of painted pine and were slightly sunk, with a small ovolo moulding instead of the raised "bolection" moulding of the Wren period), and wall-paper had been introduced. This was also the great age of English furniture design. The master was Thomas Chippendale, who, using the favourite wood of the period, mahogany, made designs for furniture which served as patterns for every joiner for several generations.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1767 The Royal Crescent, Bath. John Wood the younger, architect  
 
 
 

The eighteenth century saw the first planned towns in England. Civic qualities predominated at this time as military qualities had predominated in the fifteenth century and autocratic ones in the sixteenth and seventeenth. Squares, streets and crescents were laid out, as notably in Bath, with the emphasis on the effect of the whole rather than of the individual house. In the example illustrated the repetition of the Ionic columns, two storeys in height, and the curve of the crescent, are relied upon to give the effect of dignity. Except for a simple cornice and balustrade there is no other ornament. Spacious planning by means of the repetition of standardized units was a feature of the Georgian age.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1760 A house at Deal, Kent  
 
 
 

Elegant small houses of the second half of the eighteenth century are to be found in nearly every town in Great Britain. Though the tier of bay windows is rather special, this one is otherwise typical of South of England small builders' architecture of this period, its details probably taken from one of the many text-books, such as those of Batty Langley, which educated even village carpenters in the rules of proportion and taste. It has a red brick front with cornices, doorway and windows of painted wood (earlier these would have been of moulded brick), a decorated fanlight over the door and window bars of very thin section.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1780 A house near Rolvenden, Kent  
 
 
     
  c. 1795 A pair of cottages at Marden, Kent  
 
 
 

There are many regional variations in different materials of the simple small house or cottage designed by the local builder. The timber-framed example above, covered with painted Weather-boarding, was built about 1780, but very similar ones continued to be built for many years. The three-light window, with only the centre portion made to open, was common at this time. Lower picture: another type built in brick up to first-floor level and timber framing hung with tiles above. Variations from the all-brick cottage were encouraged by the tax on bricks, which was imposed in 1784 and not abolished until 1850.
 

 
 
 
  1780 No. 13 Devonshire Place, London  
 
 
 
1763-74
House in Adam Street, Adelphi, London. The brothers Adam, architects  
 
 
 
1795
The staircase at No. 1 Horse Guards Avenue, London  
 
 
 

Although Robert Adam and his brothers occasionally designed in the conventional Palladian style, their great influence on English architecture was on account of their rebellion against the stereotyped use of the orders. They were also leaders of the classical revival which marks the end of the eighteenth century. This originated from the study of ancient Greek and Roman architecture and from enthusiasm for the antique works of art which collectors brought from the Continent, and whose details were copied in all forms of architectural decoration. The brothers Adam are best known for the new style of interior decoration which they introduced, and which they used in many town houses, notably in the Adelphi, London, a speculative building enterprise of their own. They were also responsible for introducing the use of stucco on the exteriors of houses. The Adam interior is easily recognized by its very characteristic ornament of a rather attenuated kind, the motifs being medallions, swags, vases and other classical elements of Etruscan or Pompeian origin. They were used in plaster ceilings and fireplaces and in relief on the walls, the latter decoration being usually made from a patent "compo" which the Adam brothers invented and which made the mass production of decoration possible. The Adams were greatly assisted by the contemporary artists and craftsmen with whom they collaborated: Chippendale made furniture to their designs, Angelica Kauffmann painted ceilings in their houses, and Italian artists such as Pergolesi designed sculptured decoration. Conversely, Hepplewhite, the successor to Chippendale, and Sheraton, who were pioneers of the lighter kind of furniture in use at the end of the century, adapted many of their ideas from Robert Adam. The staircase illustrated, though not actually by Adam, is typical of the elegant staircases of the period, which economized space in the compact new town houses.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1777 Stowe, Buckinghamshire. Robert Adam, architect  
 
 
 
1795
Tyringham, Buckinghamshire. Sir John Soane, architect. The gateway  
 
 
 

A famous Adam country house (upper picture), with the characteristic horizontal skyline and central pedimented portico. Sir John Soane's work (lower picture), in contrast both to the freely modelled decoration of Adam and to Nash's perfunctory use of classical motifs, shows his greater interest in the fundamentals of architecture. Though he was a classicist of the most scholarly kind, his scientific attitude and his handling of simple masses, as at Tyringham, makes him regarded as a forerunner of the moderns. Tyringham was provided with a system of steam heating.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1780 No. 13 Devonshire Place, London  
 
 
 

The end of the eighteenth century was a period in which London expanded with great rapidity, and the new streets, squares and terraces were built in the simple Georgian style of which the picture above is very typical. The house is built of London stock bricks of the familiar greyish-yellow colour, with the bottom storey faced with stucco, engraved with lines in imitation of stone jointing. The windows of this time have flat arches of rubbed brick instead of segmental arches, and very thin glazing bars. The only ornament, besides the "pateræ" over the windows, consists in the decorated fanlight over the door and the geometrical design of area and balcony railings in wrought iron. The plan of the typical London house was almost completely standardized, consisting of one front and one back room, alongside a narrow staircase hall, on each floor.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1790 A house and shop at Witham, Essex  
 
 
 

In the country towns the same tradition of simple building according to local variation of material, with classical enrichments adapted by the builder from standard pattern-books, produced the terraces of small tradesmen's houses with their decorated doorways and the shops with elegant bow fronts. This example has the favourite late eighteenth-century feature of flat bay windows on the upper floors. A simple coping at the top has replaced cornice and parapet and the entablatures over the windows have become extremely thin. The ground floor shows how the country builders strove to fall in with fashions from the town: the glazing bars of the door show the influence of the Gothic Revival, and the fanlights above are in the "Chinese taste" then fashionable.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1790 The White House, Chipping Ongar, Essex  
 
 
 
c. 1810
Berkley Place, Cheltenham: a balcony  
 
 
 

The very late eighteenth-century front, with its elegant porch, shows windows with slightly projecting surrounds very flatly detailed, so that the glass is almost on the same face as the wall itself. Verandah balconies with delicate wrought-iron balustrades, sometimes in elaborate designs, are characteristic of this time.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1820 Houses on Strand, Dawlish, Devon  
 
 
 
c. 1823
A villa plan of the early nineteenth century  
 
 
 

The early nineteenth-century or "Regency" period saw the terrace house reach its greatest simplicity. The whole house was now stuccoed and painted; cornices had been replaced by plain projecting bands; cast iron was replacing wrought iron. The window awnings in this example are a little later in date than the rest of the house. The villa plan illustrated was the prevailing type from the beginning of the nineteenth century for over fifty years.
 

 
 
 
  1811 A group of cottages at Blaize Castle, near Bristol. John Nash, architect  
 
 
 

Alongside the continuation of the classical revival (by this time under Greek influence as a result of the researches into Greek antiquities by contemporary scholars) was a growing romantic tendency, aspiring to freedom from academic rules. It had shown itself earlier in the interest in Gothic (Strawberry Hill was built by Horace Walpole in 1750) and in oriental forms, but the earliest phase of the Gothic revival consisted largely in the introduction of Gothic mannerisms into structures that remained classical in form. By the beginning of the nineteenth century interest was in the picturesque, and was allied to the new taste in landscape gardening. The romantic cottage, built on some estates for ornament as well as use, was a favourite conceit.
 

 
 
 
  1827 Gloucester Terrace, Regent's Park, London. John Nash, architect  
 
 
 

John Nash was appointed by King George IV to carry out his great London improvements, which included Carlton House Terrace, Regent Street (now rebuilt), Park Crescent and Park Square, and the terraces that surround Regent's Park. Nash built almost exclusively in his favourite stucco. His greatest merits were his organizing ability, his vision as a town-planner and his ability to vary the individual designs in his streets without disturbing the broad effect of unity. His use of classical detail has been ridiculed as unscholarly, and is often clumsy, but his invention was remarkable and its effect in the bold façades, for example, of the Regent's Park terraces is noble. Their defect, one characteristic of their period, is that they are designed only as magnificent façades, their service quarters at the back being sordid and unconsidered. Their interiors, however, are commodious and well proportioned.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1828 Houses in Lloyd Square, Islington, London  
 
 
 
c. 1846
White Rock, Hastings  
 
 
 

The unity of the street continued to be well preserved in all classes of urban speculative development up to the second half of the century, when the preference for picturesqueness produced the garden suburb type of individualistic development. A fine quality of design was also maintained in the simpler streets, notably in the lay-out of the great speculative estates. This type of building, as distinct from the work of the architects, continued the rational tradition of the Regency. The top example shows good use of London stock brick as an alternative to the prevalent stucco. There was, however, an increasing tendency towards coarseness of detail and clumsiness of proportion.
 

 
 
 
  1837 Scarisbrick Hall, Ormskirk, Lancashire. Augustus W. N. Pugin, architect  
 
 
 

The Victorian period was one of many revivals of past styles, which followed the fashion for research into the antique and was accompanied by a general decline in standards of taste as a result of the break-up of the old order of society in the new industrial age. The interest of the architects after the death of Soane was towards the picturesque, so that, although the "battle of the styles" between Gothic and Classical was very bitter, each school showed the same preference for broken outlines instead of simple masses. The Gothic style was partly inspired by the literary fashion set by Sir Walter Scott, but chiefly by the religious movement for "christianizing" the architecture of churches. Augustus Pugin, who was this school's chief exponent and propagandist, published an influential book, Contrasts, advocating a return to structural design as distinct from the design of façades. He designed the elaborate Gothic composition illustrated. Though its exterior is effective, its interior is inconveniently planned and poorly lighted. Pugin also designed the Gothic detail of the Houses of Parliament.
 

 
 
 
  1848-57 Dorchester House, Park Lane, London (now demolished). Lewis Vulliamy, architect  
 
 
 

The rival to the Gothic style, illustrated opposite, was no longer the Greek or Roman Classic, the study of which had occupied architects' minds since the time of Robert Adam, but was a Roman Renaissance style introduced by Sir Charles Barry, displaying a rich solidity in contrast to the simpler elegance of the Greek. Dorchester House was the last of the great London town mansions. Its design was an adaptation of the Palazzo Farnesina at Rome, by Peruzzi, and its interior was notable for its decorations by Alfred Stevens.
 

 
 
 
  1858-62 Minley Manor, Hampshire. H. Clutton, architect  
 
 
 

The second phase of the Gothic revival was largely inspired by the writings of John Ruskin. It derived its details from foreign styles, notably from mediæval Italian architecture, which was eulogized by Ruskin in his book Stones of Venice. Architects delighted in mixtures of many materials, and originated such forms of ornament as the red and yellow striped brickwork and the tiled or metal roof crestings that survived for some years among suburban builders. An alternative Gothic style was that of French mediæval architecture, which was made fashionable by the writings of Viollet-le-Duc. Minley Manor is based on the style of a French château of the time of Louis Xl. The Gothic styles of this period were just as much a foreign importation as the Classical, contrasting with the English mediæval revival of the period of Pugin (page 54 [see 1837 Scarisbrick Hall, above]).
 

 
 

A typical mid-Victorian house plan
 
 

Cheap transport encouraged the complete breakdown of the old tradition of regional building in local materials. The plan illustrated is of a typical small private house of this period, showing the thick walls, dark passages, and numerous badly-shaped rooms. It can be contrasted with the plan on page 50 [see 1823, above], in which the disposition was both efficient and capable of simple standardization and the window space was as large as the construction methods allowed. The multiplication of rooms in the smaller house is another sign of middle-class aspiration towards the elaborate accommodation of the grand mansion.
 

 
 
 
  1876 Cambridge Gate, Regent's Park. William Archer, architect  
 
 
 

Though at this time the Venetian or French Gothic was accepted by the majority as the proper domestic style, a Classical style still flourished in the towns, particularly in the terraces of speculative houses designed largely in the offices of the big firms of builders who were responsible for them. In such terraces is seen the last survival of the conception of the street as a unity, which Victorian individualism was rapidly breaking up- The prevalent style was an ornate version of French Renaissance of the Second Empire, making a feature of the high-pitched roofs. Compare the Regent's Park terrace illustrated with that on page 52 [see 1827 Gloucester Terrace, above], which almost adjoins it.
 

 
 
 
  1867 House in Haverstock Hill, London  
 
 
 
1871
Street in Belsize Park, London  
 
 
 

The smaller house of the mid-Victorian period (see the plan on page 56 [see 1858-62, above]) indicates the individualist tendency that preferred the detached house in imitation of the country manor to the handsome squares and terraces of a century or even half a century earlier. Where the continuity of the street remained, the façade was broken up by tiers of bay windows of the favourite angular shape. Materials were a hard grey or red brick, with trimmings of stucco in Gothic or Renaissance style, and high-pitched ornamental roofs. Plate glass is used in the windows in large panes which, though justifiable on practical grounds, combine badly with the diminutive scale and the stylistic detail of the rest of the house.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1860 The Prince Consort's Writing Room, Buckingham Palace, London  
 
 
 

The interiors of the mid-Victorian period well show the debased taste of a commercialized age, a symptom of which was a fear of plain surfaces. The walls are covered with a boldly patterned paper, and this, in its turn, is covered with pictures of assorted sizes; the table-cloth, carpet and even the chair covers are patterned as well, and woodwork, fireplace and gasolier are richly ornamental. Besides this multiplication of decoration, the chief characteristic is solidity of workmanship, often misapplied to the imitation of one material by another. This was the age of comfort and horsehair stuffing, of the grainer and of the decorative papier-mâché furniture of the Great Exhibition.
 

 
 
 
  1859 The Red House, Bexley Heath, Kent. Designed for William Morris by Philip Webb  
 
 
 

Reaction from the ornateness and stuffiness of the last Gothic and Renaissance phases, and from the arbitrary employment of imported styles, was inevitable; but in the middle of the century the only voice of protest was that of the great reformer William Morris. The house illustrated above was built for Morris by Philip Webb and probably reflects the ideas of its owner as much as those of its architect. Though it no longer appears revolutionary in style to eyes familiar with the later houses it influenced, it did in fact represent as complete a revolution in English house design as Inigo ]ones's "Queen's House" at Greenwich of 1618 (page 30 [see 1618-35, above]), though, of course, of a reverse order: instead of Anglicizing an alien mode it initiated a return to the English rural tradition, and to craftsmanship in native materials as the source of style instead of the Venetian Gothic or grandiose French Renaissance then fashionable. There was no bathroom in the Red House.
 

 
 
 
  1870 "Cragside," Northumberland. R. Norman Shaw, architect  
 
 
 
1888
House in Queen's Gate, London. R. Norman Shaw, architect  
 
 
 

Following the pioneer work of William Morris, Norman Shaw built a number of country houses that returned to the tradition of the English manor-house. These were picturesque in conception and rambling in plan, and employed a great variety of materials, but always according to the traditional rustic usage that was now being appreciated anew. Compare the top picture with Compton Wynyates (page 20 [see 1525, above]). Norman Shaw was the chief originator of the style known as "Queen Anne" (a misnomer, as much of its inspiration was taken from Jacobean and Stuart buildings: the house in the lower picture belongs to its later Renaissance phase).
 

 
 
 
  c. 1880 Cadogan Square, London  
 
 
 

The influence of Norman Shaw, and of his school of design on free romantic lines, is seen at its worst in the prosperous town houses of the 'eighties. Their repetition of variegated gables along the street and their numerous projecting porches and bay windows produce a restless vertical emphasis. Flemish and Jacobean motifs were largely used in the design, which was elaborately carried out in moulded brickwork. Terra-cotta was also a favourite material, cast in large blocks to form ready-ornamented window-heads, porches and balustrades.
 

 
 
 
  1899 "The Orchard," Chorley Wood. C. F. A. Voysey, architect. The exterior and the dining room  
 
 
 
 
 

A more drastic return to the English country tradition was staged by C. F. A. Voysey and C. R. Mackintosh, who relied for their effects on simplicity of composition and good craftsmanship in local materials. The influence of their outlook, a less romantic one than Norman Shaw's, was restricted in England, but was strong on the Continent, where it formed the basis of many arts and crafts movements. Voysey's interiors were puritanically plain. He himself, like William Morris, designed furniture, and his simple new style had a revolutionary influence. Compare the interior above with that on page 59 [see 1860 The Prince Consort's Writing Room, above].
 

 
 
 
  1900 The Deanery, Sonning. Sir Edwin Lutyens, architect  
 
 
 
 
 

About the turn of the century Edwin (now Sir Edwin) Lutyens, in a prolific period of country-house building, developed the Norman Shaw rustic style into a personal one of his own. His houses, romantic and picturesque as compositions, were free rustic adaptations first of Tudor and later of Renaissance styles free in contrast to the scholarly stylistic exercise shown, for example, on page 54 [see 1837 Scarisbrick Hall, above]. He showed great imagination in the use of local materials and designed his houses carefully in relation to their gardens. A great architectural achievement which Shaw and Lutyens were jointly responsible for was the introduction of the "open plan." The plan reproduced, in which nearly every room has light from two or three sides, can be contrasted with that on page 56, though it is still traditional in that it relies on solid wall construction.
 

 
 
 
  c. 1908 Gate House, Shackleford Common, Godalming. Hubbard and Moore, architects  
 
 
 
1925-30
A typical new housing estate  
 
 
 

The villa type of detached house, which became known abroad as the English style, developed from the later Victorian romanticism by way of Bedford Park, the garden suburb designed by Norman Shaw in 1877-1880. Under the same influence numerous small houses were built in modified Tudor styles, particularly in the Home Counties. Real originality was shown by such architects as Ernest Newton, Dunbar Smith, Baillie-Scott and Guy Dawber. But the influence of these and of Bedford Park is seen at its worst in the caricatured Tudor styles of the ordinary speculative suburban villa (lower picture), which persist to-day as the legacy of the romantic movement of the end of the nineteenth century.
 

 
 
 
  1927 House at Welwyn Garden City. C. H. James, architect  
 
 
 

After the Great War a new Georgian revival succeeded the Tudor style of the generation before. It is notable for greater simplicity, aiming at charm and dignity instead of at picturesqueness. The Georgian framework being essentially rational and a logical form for the small house, the period character lies only in the manner of the details and in the proportions. The small house no longer apes the form of the house of grander scale. The example illustrated is from Welwyn, which is also typical of the domestic town planning of the twentieth century. The spread-out garden suburb type of development, which showed itself first in Norman Shaw's Bedford Park already mentioned, came as a reaction from the closely packed horrors the Victorians had made of their towns, but resulted in the loss of the compact unity of the eighteenth-century street.
 

 
 
 
  1937 House near Kingston, Surrey. E. Maxwell Fry, architect  
 
 
 

After about 1930 England slowly began to allow herself to be influenced by the architectural revolution that was taking place on the Continent, abandoning period styles and searching for an architecture attuned to modern life and its scientific basis; particularly one that would take more advantage of modern methods of construction and equipment and the mass production of building parts. Although it evolved abroad, the modern movement was based on study of the rationalized English house of a century ago and on the pioneer work of Voysey and his contemporaries, who had re-established the idea of a non-stylistic architecture. The introduction of steel and concrete construction has eliminated the necessity of continuous weight-bearing walls, so that the provision of large continuous windows is possible together with the free planning of spaces. This type of planning of course demands a flat roof. The large windows are made practicable by improved methods of heating. New materials, such as painted concrete, have been experimentally used on the exteriors, but, though they follow the successful precedent of the Regency stucco, they have not yet shown themselves suited to the English climate. The white walls that these materials produce, though often associated with the modern movement, are, of course, not an integral part of it. What is characteristic in this example is its lightness and elegance, which contrasts with the solidity of the house of the handicraft periods. The modern movement, in its first purist phase, has shown itself in the design of a number of isolated private houses in town and country. The street has not yet put in a new appearance.
 

 
     

 

     
 
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 
     
 

For those who want to study further the subject that has been very briefly summarized in the preceding pages the following is a list of the principal books available, in addition to Nathaniel Lloyd's History of the English House (Architectural Press, 1931) on which the first portion of this book is based. The books are arranged alphabetically according to authors' names after classification under three general headings.


1. GENERAL BACKGROUND

Bayne-Powell, Rosamund. English Country Life in the Eighteenth Century and Eighteenth-Century London Life (John Murray, 1935 and 1937).

Benson, Edwin. Life in a Mediæval City, Illustrated by York in the Fifteenth Century (S.P.C.K., 1920).

Chancellor, E. Beresford. The Eighteenth Century in London: Its Social Life and Arts and Life in Regency and Early Victorian Times (Batsford, 1933).

Coulton, C. G. Social Life in Britain and The Mediæval Village (Cambridge University Press, 1921 and 1925).

Finch, W. C. Life in Rural England (Batsford, 1928).

George, M. Dorothy. England in Transition (Routledge, 1931).

Hartley, Dorothy, and Elliot, Margaret M. Life and Work of the People of England. Two volumes (Batsford, 1931).

Hussey, Christopher. The Picturesque (Putnam, 1927).

Lethaby, W. R. Form in Civilization (Oxford University Press, 1927).

Mumford, Lewis. Technics and Civilization (Routledge, 1934) and The Culture of Cities (New York, 1938).

Quennell, Marjorie and C. H. B. A History of Everyday Things in England. Four volumes: Vols. 1 and 2, 1066-1799; Vol. 3, 1733-1851; Vol. 4, 1851-1934 (Batsford, 1930-34).

Richardson, A. E. Georgian England (Batsford, 1931).

Salzman, L. F. England in Tudor Times (Batsford, 1926).

Steegmann, John. The Rule of Taste from George I to George IV (Macmillan, 1937).

Trevelyan, G. M. A History of England. Three volumes (Longmans, 1926).

Williams, Ellis A., and Fisher, F. J. A History of English Life, Political and Social (Methuen, 1936).

Young, G. M. (edited by). Early Victorian England. Two volumes (Oxford University Press, 193/L).


2. ARCHITECTURAL BACKGROUND (including furniture and decoration)

Andrews, Francis B. The Mediæval Builder and His Methods (Oxford University Press, 1925).

Bauer, Catherine. Modern Housing (New York, 1934).

Belcher, John, and Macartney, Mervyn. Later Renaissance Architecture in England. Two volumes (Batsford, 1901).

Bertram, Anthony. The House a Machine for Living (Black, 1935).

Betjeman, John. Ghastly Good Taste (Chapman and Hall, 1933).

Blomfield, R. E. A Short History of Renaissance Architecture in England (Bell, 1914).

Bolton, Arthur T. The Work of Sir John Soane (Country Life, 1924).

Briggs, M. S. A Short History of the Building Crafts (Oxford University Press, 1925).

Clark, Kennfith. The Gothic Revival (Constable, 1928).

Cotchett, Lucretia Eddy. The Evolution of Furniture (Batsford, 1938).

Eastlake, C. L. History of the Gothic Revival (Longmans, Green and Co., 1872).

Ellwood, G. M. English Furniture and Decoration, 1680-1800 (Batsford, 1933).

Gibberd, Frederick. The Architecture of England from Norman Times to the Present Day (Architectural Press, 1938).

Godfrey, Walter H. The Story of Architecture in England (Batsford, 1931).

Gotch, J. A. Architecture of the Renaissance in England. Two Volumes (Batsford, 1894); Early Renaissance Architecture in England (Batsford, 1901); Inigo Jones (Methuen, 1928).

Howard, Ebenezer. Garden Cities of Tomorrow (Sonnenschein, first published as Tomorrow in 1898, 1902).

Innocent, C. F. The Development of English Building Construction (Cambridge, 1916).

Jourdain, M. English Interiors in Smaller Houses, from the Restoration to the Regency: 1660-1830 (Batsford, 1923).

Lancaster, Osbert. Pillar to Post: the Pocket Lamp of Architecture (John Murray, 1938).

Lenygon, F., and Jourdain, M. English Decoration and Furniture from Tudor Times to the Nineteenth Century. Four volumes: Early Renaissance, 1500-1650; Stuart and Georgian Decoration, 1660-1770; Stuart and Georgian Furniture, 1660-1770; Later Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Century, 1750-1820 (Batsford, 1914-24).

Lethaby, W. R. Philip Webb and His Work (Oxford University Press, 1935).

Lloyd, Nathaniel. A History of English Brickwork (H. G. Montgomery, new edition, 1935).

Mackail, J. W. Life of William Morris (Longmans, 1922).

Pevsner, Nikolaus. Pioneers of the Modern Movement (Faber and Faber, 1936).

Richardson, A. E., and Gill, C. Regional Architecture of the West of England (Benn, 1924).

Sharp, Thomas. Town and Countryside (Oxford University Press, 1937).

Stratton, Arthur. The English Interior (Batsford, 1920).

Summerson, John. John Nash: Architect to King George IV (Allen and Unwin, 1935).

Trappes-Lomax, M. Pugin (Sheed and Ward, 1932).

Weaver, Lawrence. Sir Christopher Wren (Country Life, 1923).

Webb, Geoffrey. Wren (Duckworth, 1937).


3. THE ENGLISH HOUSE


GENERAL

Addy, S. O. (revised and enlarged by John Summerson). The Evolution of the English House (Allen and Unwin, 1933).

Batsford, Harry and Fry, Charles. The English Cottage (Batsford, 1938).

Bemis, A. F. The Evolving House. Three volumes (Cambridge, U.S.A., 1933-36).

Boumphrey, Geoffrey. Your House and Mine (Allen and Unwin, 1938).

Gotch, J. A. The Growth of the English House (Batsford, 1928, second edition).

Helm, W. H. Homes of the Past: A Sketch of Domestic Building and Life in England from the Norman to the Georgian Age (New York, 1921).

Jones, Sydney R. English Village Homes (Batsford, 1936).

Oliver, Basil. The Cottages of England (Batsford, 1929).

Powys, A. R. The English House (Benn, 1929).

Tipping, H. Avray. English Homes. Nine volumes (Country Life, 1921).


MEDIÆVAL

Braun, H. The English Castle (Batsford, 1936).

Parker and Turner. Domestic Architecture of the Middle Ages (Batsford, 1853).

Thompson, A. Hamilton. Military Architecture in England during the Middle Ages (Frowde, 1912).


TUDOR, JACOBEAN AND GEORGIAN

Bolton, Arthur T. The Architecture of Robert and James Adam. Two volumes (Country Life, 1922).

Field and Bunney. English Domestic Architecture of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Batsford, 1928).

Garner and Stratton. The Domestic Architecture of England during the Tudor Period. Two volumes (Batsford, 1929, new edition).

Gotch, J. A. The English Home from Charles I to George IV (Batsford, 1919).

Green, Mowbray A. The Eighteenth-Century Architecture of Bath (Gregory, 1904).

Ramsey, S. C. Small Houses of the Late Georgian Period. Two volumes (Architectural Press, 1919).

Richardson and Eberlein. The Smaller English House of the Later Renaissance (Batsford, 1925).


LATER NINETEENTH AND TWENTIETH CENTURIES

McGrath, Raymond. Twentieth-Century Houses (Faber and Faber, 1924).

Muthesius, von Hermann. Das Englische Haus (Wasmuth, Berlin, 1904-5).

Weaver, Lawrence. Lutyens Houses and Gardens (Country Life, 1921).

Yorke, F. R. S. The Modern House in England (Architectural Press, 1937).

 
     

 

     
 

A Selection of BOOKS on
 
ARCHITECTURE & DECORATION
 
Published by THE ARCHITECTURAL PRESS


THE ARCHITECTURE OF ENGLAND FROM NORMAN TIMES TO THE PRESENT DAY. By FREDERICK GIBBERD, A.I.A.A. The book describes and illustrates the evolution of English Architecture and also includes notes and pictures on the history and social life of each period-two factors inseparable from the development of architecture. Throughout the book each left-hand page is devoted to a description of the historical, social and architectural character of a particular period, accompanied by explanatory drawings and pictures, while on each right-hand page are illustrations of typical buildings of that period. Thus, by turning over the pages, the evolution of the styles unfolds itself. Size 11½ ins. by 9 ins. 48 pages, including 76 photographs, 120 explanatory diagrams and 50 drawings. 5/-, postage 6d. inland.

A HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH HOUSE: FROM PRIMITIVE TIMES TO THE VICTORIAN PERIOD. By the late NATHANIEL LLOYD, O.B.E., F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. This is the most authoritative and most exhaustively illustrated history of the English House which has ever been published a magnificent record in text, photographs, drawings and plans of dwelling-house development in England and all its details from the earliest times until the middle of the 19th century. Containing nearly 900 illustrations of Plans and Elevations, Entrances, Windows, Chimneys, Interiors, Ceilings, Wall Treatment, Fireplaces, Stairs, Metalwork, etc. The volume contains over 500 pages in aIl, size 12½ ins. by 9 ins., and is attractively bound in cloth. £3 3s., postage 1/- inland.

ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE AT A GLANCE. With historical notes by FREDERICK CHATTERTON, F.R.I.B.A., and over 90 pen-and-ink sketches by J. D. M. HARVEY, B.A. The book provides a delightful and simple way for the uninitiated to become acquainted with the different styles of architecture represented in England. Fourth edition. 1/6, postage 3d. inland.

ENGLISH FURNITURE AT A GLANCE. By CHARLES HAYWARD. An elementary study written specially for the amateur and containing all the necessary information for the identification of furniture belonging to the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Over 100 drawings by the author. 3/6, postage 3d. inland.

ENGLISH ROOMS AND THEIR DECORATION AT A GLANCE. By CHARLES HAYWARD. A simple review in pictures of the changes in the design of rooms and their decorative details from 1066 to 1800. In two volumes. Vol. I., 1066-1620; Vol. II., 1621-1800. Over 100 drawings by the author in each volume. 3/6 each volume, postage 3d. inland.

SAILING SHIPS AT A GLANCE. By E. W. HOBBS, A.I.N.A., with an introduction by L. G. CARR LAUGHTON. The story of the sailing ship from the earliest times to the present day. Over 150 drawings by the author. 3/6, postage 4d. inland.

SMALL HOUSES, £500-£2,500. Edited by H. MYLES WRIGHT, M.A., A.R.I.B.A. A collection of seventy-five small houses designed by architects and recently built in this country. Each house is illustrated by exterior views and plans, and a number of interior views are also included. The special features of the site and plan of each house are described, and particulars given of construction, finishes, services and building cost. The majority of the houses illustrated cost well under £2,000. There is also an introduction by the Editor, illustrated with drawings by G. BRIAN HERBERT, A.R.I.B.A. Consisting of 112 pages printed on art paper, and containing 150 half-tone illustrations and 130 plans. Size 11 ins. by 8½ ins., cloth bound. Second impression. 7/ 6.

THE MODERN HOUSE. By F. R. S. YORKE, A.R.I.B.A. The modern architect designs houses that are intended primarily for living in. He does not allow a preconceived idea of the appearance of the façade to interfere with the efficiency of the plan. New materials are at his disposal and he employs new methods of construction. This book outlines the requirements to be met with in the new type of home, and discusses at length its several parts. Sections in the book deal with the Plan, Walls and Windows, the Roof, Experimental Houses, and General Illustrations. This last section contains about 150 pages of photographs, plans, constructional details and technical descriptions of English, American and Continental houses. Third edition, revised and enlarged. Containing, in addition to text, over 530 illustrations. Attractively bound in cloth. Size 10 ins. by 7½ ins. 21/-, postage 6d. inland.

THE MODERN HOUSE IN ENGLAND. By F. R. S. YORKE, A.R.I.B.A. The book opens with an illustrated Introduction in which is described the developments in design and construction of houses from 1908 to the present day. Then follows a series of examples of the recent domestic work carried out by well-known architects, the illustrations being arranged in groups under the materials of which they are built namely, brick, frame, and concrete. 144 pages, with 350 photographs, plans and drawings. Cloth bound, 15/ -, postage 6d. inland.

THE MODERN FLAT. By F. R. S. YORKE, A.R.I.B.A., and FREDERICK GIBBERD, A.I.A.A. The most comprehensive survey of modern flat buildings in Europe and America yet published. Following 32 pages of fully illustrated Introduction, are 168 pages and exterior and interior views, scale plans, details, diagrams and tabular information about blocks of flats built in recent years by well-known architects in Great Britain and abroad. Size 8¾ ins. by 11¾ ins. 30/-, postage 7d. inland.

THE PRINCIPLES OF ARCHITECTURAL COMPOSITION. By HOWARD ROBERTSON, F.R.I.B.A., S.A.D.G. A study of the Theory of Architectural Design written for students, practising architects and the lay public. 180 pages, with over 160 drawings by the author. 10/6, postage 6d. inland.

MODERN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN. By HOWARD ROBERTSON, F.R.I.B.A., S.A.D.G. Forming a companion volume to the author's "Principles of Architectural Composition," but in this case treating in detail aspects of design more especially from the standpoint of the Modern Movement. The book presents a sane and stimulating analysis of many of the current problems in design which are encountered by the practising architect and student. 240 pages with over 100 line drawings and photographs of some of the most interesting modern buildings in Europe and America. Cloth bound, 15/-, postage 6d. inland.

A complete catalogue of publications will be sent on request [written in 1938] to the publishers: the address is 9, Queen Anne's Gate, S.W.1.